Showing posts sorted by relevance for query apple. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query apple. Sort by date Show all posts

Monday, January 25, 2010

Apple pectin as a novel prebiotic substance, that helps the intestinal microbiota....

We know the proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" because of the fact that apple has been  addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century. Interestingly apples have shown reduce the risk of  colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of Vitamin C, but are rich source of other antioxidants.  The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss,  and controlling cholesterol, as they do not have any cholesterol, have fiber, which reduces cholesterol by preventing re absorption, and are bulky for their caloric content like most fruits and vegetables . There is  in vitro evidence that  phenolic compounds in apples (quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2) are  cancer-protective and  also demonstrate antioxidant activity.

Apples can be canned or juiced and the juice can be fermented to make apple cider (non-alcoholic, sweet cider) and cider (alcoholic, hard cider), ciderkin, and vinegar. Alcoholic beverages are produced such as applejack (beverage) and Calvados.  Apple wine can also be made. Pectin is also produced. 

Now microbiologists at the University of Denmark's National Food Institute,  tested the effect of apple consumption by feeding rats a diet of whole apples as well as apple-derived products such as apple juice and puree. The researchers then checked the bacteria in the guts of the rats to see if consuming apples affected levels of "friendly" bacteria, which are beneficial for digestive health and may reduce the risk of some diseases. Researchers found that rats eating a diet high in pectin, a component of dietary fiber in apples, had increased amounts of certain bacteria that may improve intestinal health.

As per the claim by the researchers, consuming apples affected levels of "friendly" bacteria, (bacteria that are beneficial for digestive health) and there by  reduce the risk of some diseases. And bacteria help produce short-chain fatty acids that provide ideal pH conditions for ensuring a beneficial balance of microorganisms. They also produce butyrate, which is an important fuel for the cells of the intestinal wall. Interestingly, consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, puree or pomace....

Ref : http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-10-13.pdf

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Trial shows apple allergen as effective treatment option for birch pollen-related apple allergy

In continuation of my update on Osimertinib

Osimertinib.svg
Osimertinib improves progression-free survival compared to standard first line therapy in Asian patients with EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to the Asian subset analysis of the FLAURA trial presented at the ESMO Asia 2017 Congress, sumultaneously published in The New England Journal of Medicine.
EGFR mutations occur in 30-40% of NSCLC in Asian populations compared to 10-15% in Western populations. The phase III FLAURA trial compared osimertinib, a third generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), to standard of care EGFR-TKIs (erlotinib or gefitinib) as first line therapy in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations. A total of 556 patients from Asia, Europe, and North America were randomized 1:1 to treatment with osimertinib or standard of care. Osimertinib improved progression-free survival by 54%.
This subset analysis included the 322 Asian patients in the FLAURA trial, of whom 46 were Chinese, 120 were Japanese, and 156 were from other parts of Asia.
The median progression-free survival was 16.5 months with osimertinib compared to 11.0 months for the standard therapy, with a hazard ratio of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.72; p<0.0001).
The median duration of response was two-fold higher for patients treated with osimertinib (17.6 months) compared to standard of care (8.7 months). The overall response rate was 80% with osimertinib compared to 75% with standard of care treatment. Median overall survival was not reached. The incidence of grade 3 or higher toxicities was lower for osimertinib (40%) than the standard treatment (48%).
Lead author Professor Byoung Chul Cho, Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul, Korea, said: "As in the overall trial population, osimertinib provided a significant progression-free survival benefit in Asian patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Asian patients had similar toxicities with osimertinib as the overall FLAURA population. Osimertinib should be the preferred first line treatment for EGFR-mutant NSCLC in Asia."
Commenting on the findings Professor James CH Yang, Chairman, Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei City, Taiwan, said: "The results of this subset analysis are quite compatible with the findings in the overall population presented at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid. We can therefore conclude that osimertinib can be considered as the standard of care for the first line treatment of Asian advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations."
"The proportion of patients having adverse events that caused them to stop taking osimertinib was similar in the overall (13%) and Asian (15%) populations," added Yang. "We tend to think osimertinib is a well tolerated drug so these discontinuation rates were surprisingly high and need further investigation."
Yang continued: "Although there was no statistical difference between the hazard ratios for progression-free survival, it was numerically lower in non-Asians (0.34) compared to Asians (0.54). There is an ongoing debate as to whether Asian and non-Asian patients with EGFR mutations have distinct responses to EGFR-TKIs. This might be due to variations in clinical practice rather than biology. A meta-analysis of all relevant studies could shed light on this issue."
"It will also be important to know whether Asian and non-Asian patients in the FLAURA trial with brain metastases had similar outcomes," said Yang.

Monday, November 10, 2014

An apple a day could keep obesity away



Sientists at Washington State University have concluded that non digestible compounds in apples -- specifically, Granny Smith apples  may help prevent disorders associated with obesity. The study, thought to be the first to assess these compounds in apple cultivars grown in the Pacific Northwest, appears in October's print edition of the journal Food Chemistry.
"We know that, in general, apples are a good source of these nondigestible compounds but there are differences in varieties," said food scientist Giuliana Noratto, the study's lead researcher. "Results from this study will help consumers to discriminate between apple varieties that can aid in the fight against obesity."
The tart green Granny Smith apples benefit the growth of friendly bacteria in the colon due to their high content of non-digestible compounds, including dietary fiber and polyphenols, and low content of available carbohydrates. Despite being subjected to chewing, stomach acid and digestive enzymes, these compounds remain intact when they reach the colon. Once there, they are fermented by bacteria in the colon, which benefits the growth of friendly bacteria in the gut.
The study showed that Granny Smith apples surpass Braeburn, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, McIntosh and Red Delicious in the amount of nondigestible compounds they contain.
"The nondigestible compounds in the Granny Smith apples actually changed the proportions of fecal bacteria from obese mice to be similar to that of lean mice," Noratto said.

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Apple impregnated with tangerine juice reduces risk of cardiovascular disease in obese children



"It is not a product that induces weight loss in children, but it would help improve their quality of life. The modification of oxidative stress in adipose tissue (or fat tissue) can help in the prevention of cardiovascular risk associated with childhood obesity and in the long term prevent diseases such as atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by the accumulation of fat, cholesterol and other substances)," said Dr. Pilar Codoñer, head of the Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Doctor Peset and professor in the Department of Paediatrics at the Universitat de València.

To obtain the snack, researchers enriched apple slices with mandarin juice using a technology of impregnation developed and patented by the UPV team that allows incorporating additional ingredients to the structure of porous foods, as in the case of fruits and vegetables.

"After several years of work the product is ready to be marketed by private companies. Our snack has all the properties of two products as healthy as apples and tangerine and has no added ingredient. It is an alternative to snacks that exist in the market that contain oils and saturated fats and therefore are high in calories," says Noelia Betoret, principal researcher and professor at the School of Agricultural Engineering and Natural Environment.

Friday, October 4, 2013

Apple impregnated with tangerine juice reduces risk of cardiovascular disease in obese children



"It is not a product that induces weight loss in children, but it would help improve their quality of life. The modification of oxidative stress in adipose tissue (or fat tissue) can help in the prevention of cardiovascular risk associated with childhood obesity and in the long term prevent diseases such as atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by the accumulation of fat, cholesterol and other substances)," said Dr. Pilar Codoñer, head of the Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Doctor Peset and professor in the Department of Paediatrics at the Universitat de València.

To obtain the snack, researchers enriched apple slices with mandarin juice using a technology of impregnation developed and patented by the UPV team that allows incorporating additional ingredients to the structure of porous foods, as in the case of fruits and vegetables.

"After several years of work the product is ready to be marketed by private companies. Our snack has all the properties of two products as healthy as apples and tangerine and has no added ingredient. It is an alternative to snacks that exist in the market that contain oils and saturated fats and therefore are high in calories," says Noelia Betoret, principal researcher and professor at the School of Agricultural Engineering and Natural Environment.

Monday, February 19, 2018

One hundred percent fruit juice does not alter blood sugar levels


The results are consistent with prior studies which have shown that consumption of 100% fruit juice is not linked to increasing risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It also supports a growing body of evidence that fruit juice has no significant impact on glycemic control.
The study involved comprehensive data analysis that quantitatively evaluated the correlation between consumption of 100% juice and blood glucose control.
The systematic review involved a meta-analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and assessed the effect that 100% juice from fruits like apple, citrus, berry, pomegranate, and grape, has on fasting blood insulin and blood glucose levels. This was used as a biomarker for diabetes risk.
According to The American Diabetes Association, more than 90% of the 29 million cases in adults and children in the United States fall in the category of type 2 diabetes—a metabolic disorder where the body is incapable of responding to insulin.
Following a healthy lifestyle is the first line of defense for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes. A healthy diet, regular physical exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight are also encouraged.
The US Dietary Guidelines state that  a healthy eating pattern should  include vegetables, fruits, low-fat or fat-free dairy, grains, and a variety of protein foods. A 4-oz. glass of 100% fruit juice could replace one serving (1/2 cup) of fruit, and can supplement whole fruit to help people add more nutrition to their diets.
Ref : https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-01/kc-n-nrf011718.php

Monday, February 27, 2017

Is Avocado Good for Diabetes?

Two avocados.  An avocado is cut in half.

The humble avocado, shunned for years during the fat-free diet craze of the 1990s, may have finally hit its stride. No longer just for guacamole, this nutritious fruit is popping up as a healthy addition to various diet plans.
But can people with diabetes eat this food? It turns out that avocados are not only safe for people with diabetes, but they may be downright beneficial. Research shows that avocados offer many ways to help people manage their diabetes and improve their overall well-being.

Diet and diabetes

A healthy diet is critical for people with diabetes. The foods that they eat each day can have a considerable impact on how they feel and how well their diabetes is controlled.
In general, people with diabetes should eat foods that help control blood sugar levels and that offer health benefits such lowering blood pressure and cholesterol. This is one of the best ways to keep diabetes under control, avoid complications, and lead the healthiest life possible.
Avocados are an excellent choice for people with diabetes because they offer all these benefits - and possibly more.

Blood sugar control is critical for people who have diabetes. A physician or dietitian may advise patients to choose foods that are lower in carbohydrates and sugar. They may also recommend foods that help control blood sugar spikes. An avocado meets both of these requirements.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture, an average medium avocado has around 17 grams of carbohydrates. For comparison, an apple has 25 grams of carbohydrates and a banana has 27.
A 1-ounce serving, or about one-fifth of an avocado, contains only 3 grams of carbohydrates and less than 1 gram of sugar.
With so few carbohydrates, people with diabetes likely won't need to worry about an avocado raising their blood sugar levels.
Pairing an avocado with other foods may help reduce blood sugar spikes too. Its fat and fiber content takes longer to digest and slows the absorption of other carbohydrates in the process.

How much avocado can people with diabetes eat?

Before people make any significant changes to their diet, they should talk with their physician or dietitian. One of the things to consider is total calorie intake.
A whole avocado contains 250-300 calories, but a 1-ounce serving has only 50. People who are watching their calories in order to maintain or lose weight can still add avocado to their diet. This can be done by switching a serving of avocado for something else with a similar amount of calories like cheese or mayonnaise.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) say people should pay attention to the type of fat they're eating more than the amount.
Specifically, people should strictly limit the unhealthy fats. This includes saturated fats and trans fats, often found in fatty meats, fried foods, processed and restaurant foods.
The ADA encourage people with diabetes to consider adding avocado into their diets due to its healthy fats.

Avocados and heart health

Avocados have fat and are calorie-dense, but this is not a reason for people with diabetes to avoid them.
The fats in avocados are mostly monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), which have been shown to raise "good" HDL cholesterol. MUFAs can also lower levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and fats called triglycerides, and reduce blood pressure.
Having healthy cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood pressure levels can reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).
People with diabetes are twice as likely to have heart disease and stroke as someone without diabetes, according to the NIDDK. More importantly, heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death among people with diabetes.
There may be an additional reason that MUFAs are a ticket to better health when living with diabetes. A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition suggests that these fats may help control blood sugar and insulin levels.
The researchers found this was particularly the case when replacing some carbohydrates in the diet with MUFAs. So besides being naturally low in sugar and carbohydrates, an avocado's healthy fats can help lower blood sugar levels even more.

Fiber, blood sugar levels, and feeling full

A medium avocado has an impressive 10 grams of fiber. For reference, men should get 30-38 grams of fiber per day, and women need 21-25 grams, according to the Academy of Nutrition of Dietetics.
Fiber is an important part of a healthy diet because it improves digestive health and keeps the bowels regular. It's particularly helpful for people with diabetes because it helps improve blood sugar levels.
A study in the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine suggests that fiber can lower fasting blood sugar levels and hemoglobin A1C levels in people with diabetes.
Soluble fiber, which is present in avocados, may also improve cholesterol levels, according to a study in the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition. This is another way this fruit may help reduce the risk of heart disease.
Avocados may also help people feel fuller for longer. This can help people control their calorie intake without feeling hungry. A study in the Nutrition Journal found that eating half of an avocado with lunch increased levels of feeling full up to 5 hours later.

Is Avocado Good for Diabetes?


Tuesday, October 18, 2016

High fruit intake during adolescence linked with lower breast cancer risk: But increasing alcohol intake in later life associated with higher risk



The first study reports that high fruit consumption during adolescence may be associated with lower breast cancer risk, while the second study finds that increasing alcohol intake in later life is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
Fruit and vegetables are thought to protect against breast cancer, but the evidence is conflicting. Most studies have assessed intakes during midlife and later, which may be after the period when breast tissue is most vulnerable to carcinogenic influences.
So a team of US researchers wanted to see whether fruit and vegetable consumption might affect subsequent breast cancer risk. They followed 90,000 nurses for over 20 years who reported their diet in early adulthood, of whom half also recalled their usual diet during adolescence.
They found that high fruit consumption during adolescence (2.9 v 0.5 servings per day) was associated with a roughly 25% lower risk of breast cancer diagnosed in middle age.
In particular, greater consumption of apple, banana and grapes during adolescence, as well as oranges and kale during early adulthood was significantly associated with a reduced breast cancer risk. But there was no link between intake of fruit juice in either adolescence or early adulthood and risk.
The authors say their findings are in line with cancer prevention advice to eat more fruits and vegetables, and suggest that food choices during adolescence may be particularly important.
In a linked editorial, University of Oxford researchers say "much more evidence is needed before we can draw conclusions on the reported protective association between adolescent fruit intake and breast cancer risk." But that these foods "have well known beneficial effects on health, and efforts should continue to increase intake of both fruit and vegetables at all ages."
In the second study, a team of Danish researchers wanted to test the effect of a change in alcohol intake on the risk of breast cancer and heart disease. Alcohol is responsible for about 11% of female breast cancers in the UK.
They followed the health of nearly 22,000 post-menopausal women in Denmark and found that women who increased their alcohol intake by two drinks per day over five years had around a 30% increased risk of breast cancer but around a 20% decreased risk of coronary heart disease, compared with women with a stable alcohol intake.
However, results for women who decreased their alcohol intake over the five year period were not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer or coronary heart disease.
Altogether, the authors say their findings support the hypothesis that alcohol is associated with breast cancer and coronary heart disease in opposite directions.
The results for breast cancer are in line with previous research, but the true effect of alcohol on risk of ischaemic heart disease remains uncertain, say the editorial authors.
"There may be some benefit with low to moderate intakes of alcohol, but this could be outweighed by an increased risk of breast cancer and other morbidities," they explain. "Furthermore, risk of ischaemic heart disease can be reduced substantially by other lifestyle changes, as well as by drugs such as statins shown to be effective in primary prevention."
Both studies are observational, so their interpretation needs to consider the potential impact of other factors before any firm conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect, they add.
REF : http://www.bmj.com/content/353/bmj.i2314

Friday, April 6, 2012

Berries, Tea May Cut Men's Odds for Parkinson's: Study


In continuation of my update on the benefits of   berries, apple, tea...

Berries, Tea May Cut Men's Odds for Parkinson's: Study:  - Regularly consumption of food and drink rich in substances called flavonoids, such as berries, apples, tea and red wine, can lower a man's risk of developing Parkinson's disease by 40 percent, new research suggests.

Monday, August 30, 2010

Plantain and broccoli fiber help in Crohn’s disease........















In continuation of my update on dietary benefits of broccoli....

New research from University School of Clinical Sciences in Liverpool, lead by Prof. Jonathan Rhodes,  suggests that plant fibers in plantains and broccoli can help prevent relapses of Crohn's disease. This disease is a long term disease of the gut that is characterized by inflammation of the lining of the digestive system, with symptoms including diarrhea and abdominal pain. Scientists believe that rise in processed food and decrease in fibers in diet could be a reason for rise of incidence of this disease.

For this study the scientists tested a range of soluble plant fiber to judge their effect on Crohn's disease. Soluble plant fiber is the kind which comes out of vegetables when they are boiled in water. The results of the study showed that soluble fiber from plantain and broccoli specifically stopped 45% to 82% of the bacteria E.coli from crossing into cells in the intestine. Fiber from leek and apple had no effect.

The sticky E. coli are capable of penetrating the gut wall via special cells, called M-cells that act as 'gatekeepers' to the lymphatic system. Studies have shown that patients with Crohn's disease this leak leads to chronic inflammation in the gut. This study shed that plantain soluble fibers prevented the uptake and transport of E. coli across M.cells. They compared these results with tests on polysorbate-80 - a fat emulsifier used in processed food to bind ingredients together. The tests revealed that polysorbate had the opposite effect to plantain fibers, and encouraged the movement of bacteria through the cells.

The research shows that different dietary components can have powerful effects on the movement of bacteria through the bowel. We  know  the general health benefits of eating plantain and broccoli, which are both high in vitamins and minerals, but until now we have not understood how they can boost the body's natural defences against infection common in Crohn's patients. This work, suggests that it might be important for patients with this condition to eat healthily and limit their intake of processed foods.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Cashew Seed Extract an Effective Anti-Diabetic ?


Cashew seed extract (hydroethanolic extract) shows promise as an effective anti-diabetic, according to a new study from the University of Montreal (Canada) and the Université de Yaoundé (Cameroun). The investigation analyzed the reputed health benefits of cashew tree products on diabetes, notably whether cashew extracts could improve the body's response to its own insulin.
The researchers claims that hydroethanolic extract of cashew seed (CSE) and its active component, anacardic acid (see structure), stimulated glucose transport into C2C12 myotubes in a concentration-dependent manner. Extracts of other parts (leaves, bark and apple) of cashew plant were inactive. Significant synergistic effect on glucose uptake with insulin was noticed at 100 g/mL CSE. CSE and AA caused activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in C2C12 myotubes after 6 h of incubation. No significant effect was noticed on Akt and insulin receptor phosphorylation. Both CSE and AA exerted significant uncoupling of succinate-stimulated respiration in rat liver mitochondria.
"Of all the extracts tested (out of leaves, bark, seeds and apples), only cashew seed extract significantly stimulated blood sugar absorption by muscle cells," says senior author Pierre S. Haddad, a pharmacology professor at the University of Montreal's Faculty of Medicine. "Extracts of other plant parts had no such effect, indicating that cashew seed extract likely contains active compounds, which can have potential anti-diabetic properties."

Researchers conclude that, activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase by CSE and AA likely increases plasma membrane glucose transporters, resulting in elevated glucose uptake. In addition, the dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation may enhance glycolysis and contribute to increased glucose uptake. These results collectively suggest that CSE may be a potential anti-diabetic nutraceutical.
Cashew tree products have long been reported to be effective anti-inflammatory agents, counter high blood sugar and prevent insulin resistance among diabetics. This study validates the traditional use of cashew tree products in diabetes and points to some of its natural components that can serve to create new oral therapies...

Friday, January 1, 2010

Oleanolic acid capsules for Hepatitis B......

We  know that Oleanolic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid, widely  distributed in food and medicinal plants, related to betulinic acid. It can be found in Phytolacca americana (American pokeweed), and Syzygium spp, garlic, etc. It is relatively non-toxic, antitumor, and hepatoprotective (antihepatotoxic - protecting liver cells against toxins) as well as exhibiting antiviral properties.

Oleanolic acid was found to exhibit strong anti-HIV activity, the related compound betulinic acid was used to create the first commercial maturation inhibitor drug. It was first studied and isolated from several plants, including Rosa woodsii (leaves), Prosopis glandulosa (leaves and twigs), Phordendron juniperinum (whole plant), Syzygium claviflorum (leaves), Hyptis capitata (whole plant), and Ternstromia gymnanthera (aerial part). Other Syzygium species including java apple (Syzygium samarangense) and rose apples contain it.

Now Biostar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has completed preparation to launch its flagship Xin Aoxing Oleanolic Acid ("Xin Aoxing") Capsules for the treatment of Hepatitis B in Beijing and Shanghai in early January 2010.....

Ref : http://www.biostarpharmaceuticals.com/newsdisp.asp?id=78

Sunday, September 6, 2009

Fruits better than prviously thought !.......

Polyphenol content in fruits usually refers to extractable polyphenols, but a Spanish scientist working at the Institute of Food Research in Norwich analysed apple, peach and nectarine. She found that nonextractable polyphenol content is up to five times higher than extractable compounds. Its really interesting and that might be the reason why our forefathers used to insist to eat whole fruits (though they might not have studied so exhaustively... !).  

The interesting findings like,  "polyphenols need to be treated with acid to extract them from the cell walls of fruit in the lab" will help at least now onwards to collect all the useful polyphenols (proanthocyanidins, ellagic acid and catechin)  which without this new findings might have gone as waste.  Dr Paul Kroon from IFR explains: “In the human body these compounds will be fermented by bacteria in the colon, creating metabolites that may be beneficial, for example with antioxidant activity. 

Hope these  nonextractable polyphenols, (which mostly escape analysis and are not usually considered in nutritional studies),  will play a major part of bioactive compounds in the diet  in the days to come. Congrats Professor Saura-Calixto, for this  achievement.....