Saturday, February 16, 2019

Sprycel (dasatinib) Tablets Now Approved in Combination with Chemotherapy in Certain Pediatric Patients with Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

In continuation of my update on Dasatinib


Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE:BMY)  announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has expanded the indication for Sprycel ® (dasatinib) tablets to include the treatment of pediatric patients one year of age and older with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in combination with chemotherapy.1 Sprycel is the only second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for this patient population. The approval, which was granted following priority review by the FDA, is based on data from the Phase 2 study, CA180-372 (NCT01460160).
“We recognize the urgency around developing and delivering therapies for children and young adults living with cancer, and today’s approval is an important example of our commitment to pediatric oncology,” said Jeffrey Jackson, Ph.D., development lead, hematology, Bristol-Myers Squibb. “Building on our previous indication for children with Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase, we’re pleased to bring Sprycel tablets to a second type of pediatric leukemia. This approval will give physicians another treatment option to offer appropriate pediatric patients with Ph+ ALL.”
Sprycel is associated with the following Warnings and Precautions: myelosuppression, bleeding-related events, fluid retention, cardiovascular events, pulmonary arterial hypertension, QT prolongation, severe dermatologic reactions, tumor lysis syndrome, embryo-fetal toxicity and effects on growth and development in pediatric patients.1 Please see detailed Important Safety Information below.
The efficacy of Sprycel tablets in combination with chemotherapy was evaluated in a single cohort of the Phase 2, multicenter, single-arm CA180-372 study, which included 78 pediatric patients with newly diagnosed B-cell precursor Ph+ ALL.1,2 At three years, the study demonstrated an event-free survival (EFS) binary rate of 64.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.4 to 74.7).1 Event-free survival is defined as the time from the start of Sprycel to lack of complete response at the end of the third high-risk block, relapse, secondary malignancy or death from any cause.
Of the 81 patients evaluated for safety, fatal adverse reactions occurred in three patients (4%), and eight (10%) experienced adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation, including fungal sepsis, hepatotoxicity of graft versus host disease, thrombocytopenia, CMV infection, pneumonia, nausea, enteritis and drug hypersensitivity.1 The most common serious adverse reactions (incidence ≥10%) were pyrexia, febrile neutropenia, mucositis, diarrhea, sepsis, hypotension, infections (bacterial, viral and fungal), hypersensitivity, vomiting, renal insufficiency, abdominal pain and musculoskeletal pain.1
“As treatments have advanced in recent years, we’ve seen improvements in outcomes for pediatric patients with Ph+ ALL overall, but there remains a need for additional options,”3 said Stephen Hunger, MD, lead study author, chief of the division of oncology and director of the Center for Childhood Cancer Research at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. “The Phase 2 CA180-372 trial was particularly informative because it was designed to limit the use of cranial irradiation and stem cell transplant. In the study, Sprycel plus chemotherapy demonstrated a three-year event-free survival benefit. These results show that Sprycel is an effective medication for physicians to consider for children and adolescents with Ph+ ALL.”1,4
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is characterized by chromosomal abnormalities and genetic alterations involved in the differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells.The most common childhood cancer in the United States, ALL represents 20% of all cancers diagnosed in persons aged less than 20 years, or more than 3,000 new cases each year.6 Three percent of children who have ALL have the Ph+ subtype, which means they have a chromosome alteration that results in a specific mutation of the BCR-ABL gene.3
“Coping with a pediatric cancer diagnosis, including searching for and identifying the right treatment regimen, can take a physical and emotional toll on patients and their families,” said Vickie Buenger, president of the Coalition Against Childhood Cancer (CAC2). “The availability of another option is a welcome step forward for those affected by this disease.”
In addition to this pediatric approval, Sprycel is approved for use in children one year of age and older with Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP).

Friday, February 15, 2019

New Drug Application for Insomnia Disorder Treatment Lemborexant Submitted in the United States


Eisai Co., Ltd. (CEO: Haruo Naito, “Eisai”) and Purdue Pharma L.P. (President and CEO: Craig Landau, MD, “Purdue Pharma”) today announced that a new drug application has been submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lemborexant, an investigational agent for sleep-wake regulation, seeking approval for the treatment of insomnia, a sleep-wake disorder.
Lemborexant.svg

This application was based on the results of two pivotal Phase 3 clinical studies in patients with insomnia, SUNRISE 1 (Study 304) and SUNRISE 2 (Study 303), enrolling approximately 2,000 patients, as well as important safety studies, including assessment of postural stability after middle-of-the-night awakening and a next-morning driving study. SUNRISE 1, a one-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, included the first ever Phase 3 head-to-head comparison versus zolpidem ER and objectively assessed sleep parameters (time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset) resulting in the largest (objective) polysomnography dataset collected to date in patients with insomnia. SUNRISE 2 was a 12-month study and subjectively assessed for ability to fall asleep and stay asleep based on patient self reports (sleep diaries).
Lemborexant, which acts on the orexin neurotransmitter system and is believed to regulate sleep and wake by dampening wakefulness without impeding the ability to awaken to external stimuli, is being jointly developed by Eisai and Purdue Pharma for the treatment of multiple sleep-wake disorders, including insomnia disorder. In addition to the treatment of insomnia disorder, a Phase 2 clinical study of lemborexant in patients with irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder and mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia is underway. Information about ongoing clinical studies is available at clinicaltrials.gov.
Eisai and Purdue Pharma are striving to address new unmet medical needs and to improve the lives of patients and their families.
This release discusses investigational uses of an agent in development and is not intended to convey conclusions about efficacy or safety. There is no guarantee that such an investigational agent will successfully complete clinical development or gain health authority approval.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemborexant







New Drug Application for Insomnia Disorder Treatment Lemborexant Submitted in the United States

Thursday, February 14, 2019

FDA Advisory Committee Votes on Zynquista (sotagliflozin) as Treatment for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes


In continuation of my update on sotagliflozin

Sotagliflozin.png
The Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today voted eight to eight on the question of whether the overall benefits of Zynquista™* (sotagliflozin) outweighed the risks to support approval. Sotagliflozin is an investigational oral dual SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitor under regulatory review as an adjunct to insulin for the treatment of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). While the FDA is not required to follow the committee’s vote, the agency considers the committee’s recommendations when making its decision, which is anticipated by March 22, 2019.
Sotagliflozin, developed by Sanofi and Lexicon, has the potential to be the first oral antidiabetic drug approved in the United States together with insulin therapy to improve glycemic (blood sugar) control in adults with T1D.
“We believe in the overall benefit-risk profile of sotagliflozin for adults with type 1 diabetes who lack adequate glycemic control using insulin alone,” said Rachele Berria, MD, PhD, Global Vice President and Head of Diabetes Medical Affairs, Sanofi. “We will continue to work with the FDA through its review process to hopefully bring to patients a new treatment that can help people living with type 1 diabetes control their blood sugar and address some of the challenges of insulin-only therapy.”
Sotagliflozin is an investigational oral dual inhibitor of two proteins responsible for glucose regulation known as sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter types 1 and 2 (SGLT1 and SGLT2). SGLT1 is responsible for glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, and SGLT2 is responsible for glucose reabsorption by the kidney. About 1.3 million Americans have T1D and an estimated 40,000 people will be newly diagnosed each year in the U.S., according to the American Diabetes Association.
“In clinical trials, when used in combination with insulin therapy, sotagliflozin significantly improved glycemic control without increasing hypoglycemia,” said Pablo Lapuerta, MD, Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer, Lexicon. “These results could not be achieved with insulin alone. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an inherent risk of type 1 diabetes and an increase was seen with sotagliflozin compared to insulin alone. We believe this can potentially be addressed with proper education and monitoring.” 
The New Drug Application for sotagliflozin included data from the inTandem clinical trial program, which included three Phase 3 clinical trials assessing the safety and efficacy of sotagliflozin in approximately 3,000 adults with inadequately controlled T1D. The safety and efficacy data have not yet been fully evaluated by any regulatory authority.
Sanofi also submitted a regulatory application to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 2018. An EMA approval decision is expected in the first half of 2019.
https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB12713
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/lx-4211#section=2D-Structure

Wednesday, February 13, 2019

Exelixis Announces U.S. FDA Approval of Cabometyx (cabozantinib) Tablets for Previously Treated Hepatocellular Carcinoma


In continuation of my update on Cabometyx (cabozantinib)

Cabozantinib.svg

Exelixis, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Cabometyx (cabozantinib) tablets for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have been previously treated with sorafenib. HCC is the most common form of liver cancer and the fastest-rising cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. 
“This new indication for Cabometyx is an important treatment advance for patients with this aggressive form of liver cancer, a community in need of new therapeutic options,” said Michael M. Morrissey, Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of Exelixis. “This approval is an important milestone as we continue to explore how Cabometyx may benefit people with difficult-to-treat-cancers beyond renal cell carcinoma. We would like to thank the patients and clinicians who participated in CELESTIAL and to acknowledge the team at the FDA for their continued collaboration during the review of our application.”
The FDA’s approval of Cabometyx was based on results from the CELESTIAL phase 3 pivotal trial of Cabometyx for patients with advanced HCC who received prior sorafenib. Cabometyx demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival (OS) versus placebo. On November 15, 2018, Exelixis’ partner Ipsen received approval from the European Commission for Cabometyx tablets as a monotherapy for HCC in adults who have previously been treated with sorafenib.
“Patients with this form of advanced liver cancer have few treatment options, particularly once their disease progresses following treatment with sorafenib,” said Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa, M.D., Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York and lead investigator on CELESTIAL. “Physicians are eager for new options for these patients, and the results of the CELESTIAL trial demonstrate that Cabometyx has the efficacy and safety profile to become an important new therapy in our efforts to slow disease progression and improve treatment outcomes.”
In the pivotal CELESTIAL trial, median OS was 10.2 months with cabozantinib versus 8.0 months with placebo (HR 0.76, 95 percent CI 0.63-0.92; p=0.0049). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was more than doubled, at 5.2 months with cabozantinib and 1.9 months with placebo (HR 0.44, 95 percent CI 0.36-0.52; p<0.0001). Objective response rates per RECIST 1.1 were 4 percent with cabozantinib and 0.4 percent with placebo (p=0.0086). Disease control (partial response or stable disease) was achieved by 64 percent of patients in the cabozantinib group compared with 33 percent of patients in the placebo group.
Adverse events in CELESTIAL were consistent with the known safety profile of cabozantinib. The most common (≥10 percent) grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the cabozantinib group compared to the placebo group were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (17 percent vs. 0 percent), hypertension (16 percent vs. 2 percent), increased aspartate aminotransferase (12 percent vs. 7 percent), fatigue (10 percent vs. 4 percent) and diarrhea (10 percent vs. 2 percent). Treatment-related grade 5 adverse events occurred in six patients in the cabozantinib group (hepatic failure, esophagobronchial fistula, portal vein thrombosis, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism and hepatorenal syndrome) and in one patient in the placebo group (hepatic failure). Sixteen percent of patients in the cabozantinib arm and three percent of patients in the placebo arm discontinued treatment due to treatment-related adverse events.
“While we’ve seen some progress in the treatment of primary liver cancer in recent years, the patient community still needs new and better options,” said Andrea Wilson, President and Founder of Blue Faery: The Adrienne Wilson Liver Cancer Association. “The approval of Cabometyx has been eagerly anticipated, making this an important day for patients diagnosed with this devastating disease.”
In December 2018, Exelixis and its partner Ipsen announced the initiation of COSMIC-312, a phase 3 pivotal trial of cabozantinib in combination with atezolizumab versus sorafenib in previously untreated advanced HCC. The trial will also explore single-agent activity of cabozantinib in the first-line setting. For more information about the trial, visit ClinicalTrials.gov.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabozantinib



Exelixis Announces U.S. FDA Approval of Cabometyx (cabozantinib) Tablets for Previously Treated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Tuesday, February 12, 2019

FDA Approves Tosymra (sumatriptan) Nasal Spray for Acute Treatment of Migraine

In continuation of my update on Tosymra (sumatriptan)
Sumatriptan Structural Formula V.1.svg
Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. and its subsidiary, Promius Pharma, LLC today announced the approval of Tosymra (previously known as DFN-02) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Tosymra is indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. Tosymra is the latest product to join the Promius Pharma acute migraine treatment portfolio. The company is working toward commercialization of this product.
“We are excited about the approval of Tosymra. This approval affirms our ability to develop well-differentiated products to meet the unmet needs of patients with migraine and HCPs treating them,” said G.V. Prasad, Co-Chairman and CEO, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories.
According to Dr. Anil Namboodiripad, PhD, President, Promius Pharma, “Tosymra nasal spray is formulated using a proprietary novel excipient known as Intravail [®] to achieve blood levels similar to a 4-mg sumatriptan subcutaneous injection, resulting in rapid onset of action. Independent research shows that 26% to 40% of migraine patients are not optimally controlled with their current treatment.  For patients who suffer from the debilitating and disruptive effects of migraine, there continues to be a need for reliable and efficacious treatment options. At Promius, we are committed to developing new ways of improving patient experiences. Tosymra is a mist-like nasal spray that acts rapidly and is well tolerated.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumatriptan






FDA Approves Tosymra (sumatriptan) Nasal Spray for Acute Treatment of Migraine

Saturday, February 9, 2019

FDA Approves Imbruvica (ibrutinib) Plus Obinutuzumab as First Non-Chemotherapy Combination Regimen for Treatment-Naïve Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

In continuation of my update on  ibrutinib
Ibrutinib.svg


The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson announced  the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Imbruvica (ibrutinib) in combination with obinutuzumab in treatment-naïve patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), the most common form of leukemia in adults.1 This is the first approval for a non-chemotherapy combination regimen for treatment-naïve patients with CLL/SLL, and marks the tenth FDA approval for Imbruvica since its U.S. launch in November 2013. The approval expands the label for Imbruvica in frontline CLL/SLL beyond its use as a monotherapy to include combination use with obinutuzumab. Imbruvica, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, is jointly developed and commercialized by Janssen Biotech, Inc. and Pharmacyclics LLC, an AbbVie company.
"In just a few years, Imbruvica has become an important treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Imbruvica as a single agent – and now as a combination with obinutuzumab – provides patients with CLL with an alternative to frontline treatment with chemoimmunotherapy," said Carol Moreno, M.D., Ph.D., Consultant Hematologist, Hospital de la Santa Creu Sant Pau, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, and lead investigator of the iLLUMINATE study.
This approval is based on results from the Phase 3 iLLUMINATE study (PCYC-1130). At a median follow-up of 31 months, Imbruvica plus obinutuzumab showed a significant improvement in Independent Review Committee (IRC)-evaluated progression-free survival compared with chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab (median not evaluable [NE] vs. 19 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0.23; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.37; P<0.0001), with a 77 percent reduction in risk of progression or death. Patients with high-risk disease (17p deletion/TP53 mutation, 11q deletion, or unmutated IGHV) treated with Imbruvica plus obinutuzumab experienced an 85 percent reduction in risk of progression or death (HR 0.15; 95 percent CI: 0.09-0.27). The IRC-evaluated overall response rate was 89 percent in the Imbruvica plus obinutuzumab arm versus 73 percent in the chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab arm. The data were recently presented in an oral session at the 2018 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and simultaneously published in The Lancet Oncology.
"This label update builds upon the established efficacy and safety of Imbruvica in the frontline treatment of patients with CLL/SLL, as a monotherapy or in combination with other treatments," said Craig Tendler, M.D., Vice President, Clinical Development and Global Medical Affairs, Janssen Research & Development, LLC. "This milestone represents our continued commitment to develop Imbruvica-based, non-chemotherapy regimens to address the clinical needs of patients living with CLL/SLL."
The FDA also updated the Imbruvica label to include additional long-term efficacy data supporting its use as a monotherapy in CLL/SLL, with approximately five years of follow-up from the Phase 3 RESONATE™ (PCYC-1112) and RESONATE™-2 (PCYC-1115, PCYC-1116) international studies.
Warnings and Precautions include hemorrhage, infections, cytopenias, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, second primary malignancies, tumor lysis syndrome, and embryo-fetal toxicity. The most common adverse reactions (occurring in 20 percent or more of patients) of all grades in patients treated with Imbruvica plus obinutuzumab in the iLLUMINATE study were neutropenia (48 percent), thrombocytopenia (36 percent), rash (36 percent), diarrhea (34 percent), musculoskeletal pain (33 percent), bruising (32 percent), cough (27 percent), infusion related reaction (25 percent), hemorrhage (25 percent), and arthralgia (22 percent).
The recommended dose of Imbruvica for CLL/SLL is 420 mg orally once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity as a single agent or in combination with obinutuzumab or bendamustine and rituximab (BR). When administering Imbruvica in combination with rituximab or obinutuzumab, doctors should consider administering Imbruvica prior to rituximab or obinutuzumab when given on the same day.
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Friday, February 8, 2019

FDA Approves Osphena (ospemifene) for Moderate to Severe Vaginal Dryness Due to Menopause

Duchesnay Inc., a pharmaceutical company specializing in women’s health, announced   that the FDA has approved its supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) seeking to add moderate to severe vaginal dryness, a symptom of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), due to menopause, to the indication of Osphena (ospemifene).
Ospemifene.svg

The sNDA was based on new safety and efficacy data acquired through a confirmatory phase 3 randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study evaluating the efficacy and safety of ospemifene in patients with moderate to severe vaginal dryness. Osphena is non-hormonal and helps improve specific vaginal tissues by increasing superficial cells, decreasing parabasal cells and reducing vaginal pH.
Prior to this approval, Osphena was indicated only for the treatment of moderate to severe dyspareunia (painful intercourse), also a symptom of VVA, due to menopause.
“Many menopausal women are not aware that vaginal dryness is one of the two most common and most bothersome symptoms (MBS) of vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause. FDA’s approval of this additional indication affirms Osphena’s safety and effectiveness for treating moderate to severe vaginal dryness, broadening its benefits to a larger number of menopausal women,” affirmed Dr. James A. Simon, Clinical Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at George Washington University.
Before menopause, estrogen helps maintain the thickness, elasticity and lubrication of vaginal tissues. However, as women age, estrogen levels drop, causing changes in these tissues, which can lead to dryness, itching, burning and painful intercourse.
“With the addition of moderate to severe vaginal dryness to Osphena’s indication, Duchesnay USA can now help postmenopausal women suffering from this symptom of VVA”, explained Dean Hopkins, General Manager of Duchesnay USA. “With this new indication, Osphena now provides an oral option for women who prefer a non-hormonal treatment alternative.”
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Friday, February 1, 2019

New One-Dose Flu Drug Shows Promise

An experimental single-dose flu drug shows promise as a new way to alleviate the misery of influenza, researchers say. 

Baloxavir marboxil.svg
The drug  called baloxavir (structre)  worked better than no treatment in one phase of a new study. The study also found it as effective as the current standard drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu), at controlling symptoms such as coughing, sore throat, headache, fever, muscle and joint pain, and fatigue.
Moreover, in light of concerns about flu-drug resistance, most patients treated with baloxavir responded as expected, the study authors said.
"There are few approved influenza antivirals, and current treatments have limitations," said study lead author Dr. Frederick Hayden, of the University of Virginia School of Medicine.
"For example, currently circulating influenza viruses are resistant to the older class of antivirals," he said. These include the drugs amantadine (brand name Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine).
Resistance is also growing to the class of drugs including widely used Tamiflu and Relenza (zanamivir), Hayden said. "Consequently, there are medical needs for new anti-influenza agents with different mechanisms of action and greater potency," he added.
Hayden, professor emeritus of clinical virology and medicine, said the new study indicates that baloxavir resolves flu symptoms as quickly, effectively and safely as current options, without yet raising concerns about resistance. It also demonstrated "significantly greater antiviral effects," he added.
Also, while Tamiflu must be taken twice a day for five days, baloxavir requires just one dose.
The investigation was funded by the drug company Shionogi, Inc., which developed and manufactures baloxavir.
Baloxavir is approved for use in Japan. In the United States, it remains an "investigational drug," with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration expected to decide on approval by the end of this year.
The new study, which was published Sept. 6 in the New England Journal of Medicine, unfolded in two trials, both involving otherwise healthy flu patients at low risk for influenza complications.
One trial was conducted during the 2015-2016 flu season. About 400 patients, aged 20 to 64, received one of three doses of baloxavir (ranging from 10 to 40 milligrams) or a placebo. Flu symptoms eased notably faster among all three baloxavir groups, compared with placebo (untreated) patients, the findings showed.
The following flu season, nearly 1,100 patients, aged 12 to 64, were treated with baloxavir or Tamiflu. The drugs relieved symptoms in roughly the same time period, with similar side-effect risk.
However, about 10 percent of the baloxavir patients had a less than robust response to the drug. Hayden acknowledged that "the clinical and public health implications of reduced susceptibility to baloxavir are not fully understood."
Dr. Timothy Uyeki, author of an accompanying journal editorial, heads the influenza division at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.
"There is a need for antiviral drugs with new mechanisms of action," he agreed.Uyeki highlighted the benefit of baloxavir's single-dose regimen. Besides its convenience, it "avoids concerns about compliance with a five-day treatment course of oseltamivir," he said.
But he also stressed the need for further testing.
It remains unclear what benefits might accrue from combining baloxavir with Tamiflu, Uyeki noted.
Also, he cautioned, the current research only included otherwise healthy people aged 12 to 64 who were not at high risk for flu complications. Whether baloxavir will benefit high-risk groups -- young children, the elderly, pregnant women and others with underlying chronic medical conditions -- remains unknown, Uyeki said.
"A lot more studies are needed of the clinical benefit of baloxavir treatment of influenza in high-risk outpatients," he added.