Showing posts with label grapes. Show all posts
Showing posts with label grapes. Show all posts

Tuesday, October 18, 2016

High fruit intake during adolescence linked with lower breast cancer risk: But increasing alcohol intake in later life associated with higher risk

The first study reports that high fruit consumption during adolescence may be associated with lower breast cancer risk, while the second study finds that increasing alcohol intake in later life is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
Fruit and vegetables are thought to protect against breast cancer, but the evidence is conflicting. Most studies have assessed intakes during midlife and later, which may be after the period when breast tissue is most vulnerable to carcinogenic influences.
So a team of US researchers wanted to see whether fruit and vegetable consumption might affect subsequent breast cancer risk. They followed 90,000 nurses for over 20 years who reported their diet in early adulthood, of whom half also recalled their usual diet during adolescence.
They found that high fruit consumption during adolescence (2.9 v 0.5 servings per day) was associated with a roughly 25% lower risk of breast cancer diagnosed in middle age.
In particular, greater consumption of apple, banana and grapes during adolescence, as well as oranges and kale during early adulthood was significantly associated with a reduced breast cancer risk. But there was no link between intake of fruit juice in either adolescence or early adulthood and risk.
The authors say their findings are in line with cancer prevention advice to eat more fruits and vegetables, and suggest that food choices during adolescence may be particularly important.
In a linked editorial, University of Oxford researchers say "much more evidence is needed before we can draw conclusions on the reported protective association between adolescent fruit intake and breast cancer risk." But that these foods "have well known beneficial effects on health, and efforts should continue to increase intake of both fruit and vegetables at all ages."
In the second study, a team of Danish researchers wanted to test the effect of a change in alcohol intake on the risk of breast cancer and heart disease. Alcohol is responsible for about 11% of female breast cancers in the UK.
They followed the health of nearly 22,000 post-menopausal women in Denmark and found that women who increased their alcohol intake by two drinks per day over five years had around a 30% increased risk of breast cancer but around a 20% decreased risk of coronary heart disease, compared with women with a stable alcohol intake.
However, results for women who decreased their alcohol intake over the five year period were not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer or coronary heart disease.
Altogether, the authors say their findings support the hypothesis that alcohol is associated with breast cancer and coronary heart disease in opposite directions.
The results for breast cancer are in line with previous research, but the true effect of alcohol on risk of ischaemic heart disease remains uncertain, say the editorial authors.
"There may be some benefit with low to moderate intakes of alcohol, but this could be outweighed by an increased risk of breast cancer and other morbidities," they explain. "Furthermore, risk of ischaemic heart disease can be reduced substantially by other lifestyle changes, as well as by drugs such as statins shown to be effective in primary prevention."
Both studies are observational, so their interpretation needs to consider the potential impact of other factors before any firm conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect, they add.

Wednesday, March 6, 2013

Grape seed and skin extract: A weapon in the fight against kidney disease caused by high-fat diets

Researchers examined the effect of GSSE processed from a grape cultivar ('Carignan') of Vitis vinifera from northern Tunisia on rats. Rats were fed a high-fat diet that induced a low-grade reno-lipotoxicity, that is, kidney damage associated with lipids. This was characterized by elevations in plasma urea and protein in the urine. The researchers found increased deposits of triglycerides (TG) (especially saturated fatty acids), increased signs of oxidative stress and depleted copper levels in the kidneys. There was also histological evidence of disturbance in the kidney structure. When the animals received GSSE at 500 mg/kg bw (which corresponds to 35g/day for a 70 kg human adult) along with the high-fat diet there was a partial reversal of the TG deposition as well as the histological damage. The authors suggest polyphenols including resveratrol are likely the components in GSSE responsible for the positive effects. Furthermore the GSSE prevented the oxidative stress and copper depletion.

"In our research, obesity-induced leaky kidney and proteinuria are shown to be prevented by GSSE, which suggests the use of GSSE as a preventive nutriceutical for high-risk patients," said co-author Kamel Charradi, a researcher with the Laboratory of Bioactive Substance at the Center of Biotechnology of Borj-Cedria (CBBC) in Tunisia. This research group has previously published work showing the benefits of GSSE in combating obesity, heart dysfunction, brain lipotoxicity and kidney cancer.....

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