Tuesday, September 15, 2020

New insecticide compounds from plant used for traditional Chinese medicine

For hundreds of years, practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine have used an herb called Stemona sessilifolia as a remedy for parasitic infections, such as those caused by pinworms and lice. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry have identified 10 compounds that might be responsible for the herb's effectiveness. But there's a twist: The insecticides are produced by symbiotic microbes that live within the plant's cells -; not by S. sessilifolia itself.
Stemona curtisii CBM.png
Endophytes are microorganisms that live inside plant cells but do not cause apparent disease. Instead, some endophytes help plants survive by enhancing growth, nutrient acquisition, or resistance to drought or pests. Therefore, scientists are investigating endophytes as potential sources of new medicines and agrichemicals. Xiachang Wang, Lihong Hu and colleagues wanted to screen endophytes from S. sessilifolia for insecticidal activity.
To isolate endophytes, the researchers spread fresh, cut-up pieces of S. sessilifolia on agar plates. They then collected the bacteria that grew on the plates, analyzed the DNA and identified the microbes as Streptomyces clavuligerus. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, the team purified 10 new compounds from the bacteria with structures similar to a class of insecticides known as pyrroles. Testing the substances on insects revealed that they were strongly toxic to aphids and moderately toxic to spider mites. A bacterial extract containing all of the compounds had greater lethal activity than any compound alone. These substances, or the bacteria that produce them, could be promising new natural pesticides, the researchers say.
The authors acknowledge funding from the National Key R&D Program, the Nature Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China, the Outstanding Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Jiangsu Provincial "Double Creation Program" and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stemona

Saturday, September 12, 2020

Combined drug treatment for lung cancer and secondary tumors



In continuation of my update on alectiniberlotinib and  osimertinib

Alectinib structure.svg 
                                                                   alectinib

                                                   Erlotinib Structural Formulae.png 
                                                                     erlotinib
                                                  Osimertinib.svg
                                                                             Osimertinib


Researchers at Kanazawa University report in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology a promising novel approach for a combined treatment of the most common type of lung cancer and associated secondary cancers in the central nervous system. The approach lies in combining two cancer drugs, with one compensating for a resistance side effect of the other.

In 20 to 40% of patients with cancer, metastasis (the development of secondary tumors) in the central nervous system (CNS) occurs. CNS metastasis impacts negatively on a patient's quality of life, and is associated with a poor health prognosis. In a form of cancer known as ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), CNS metastasis is known to persist when drugs targeting primary tumors are used. Now, Seiji Yano from Kanazawa University and colleagues have investigated the origins for the resistence to such drugs, and tested a new therapeutic strategy on a mouse model.

The researchers looked at the drug alectinib. Although used in standard treatments for advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC, approximately 20 to 30% of patients treated with alectinib develop CNS metastasis, which is attributed to acquired resistance to the drug.
By treating mice first injected with tumor cells with alectinib daily for 16 weeks, the scientists obtained a mouse model displaying alectinib resistance. By biochemical analyses of the mouse brains, Yano and colleagues were able to link the resistance to the activation of a protein known as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This activation is, in turn, a result of an increase in production of amphiregulin (AREG), a protein that binds to EGFR and in doing so 'activates' it.
Based on this insight, the researchers tested the effect of administering drugs used for inhibiting the action of EGFR in combination with alectinib treatment. The experiments showed that a combination treatment of alctinib with either erlotinib or osimertinib—two existing EGFR-inibiting drugs—prevented the progression of CNS metastasis, controlling the condition for over 30 days.
The scientists conclude that the combined use of alectinib and EGFR-inhibitors could overcome alectinib resistance in the mouse model of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC), a particular type of CNS metastasis. Quoting Yano and colleagues: "Our findings may provide rationale for clinical trials to investigate the effects of novel therapies dual-targeting ALK and EGFR in ALK-rearranged NSCLC with alectinib-resistant LMC."
Non-small-cell lung cancer
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) are the two types of lung cancer. 85% of all lung cancers are of the NSCLC type. NSCLCs are less sensitive to chemotherapy than SCLCs, making drug treatment of the highest importance.
Alectinib is a drug used for treating NSCLC, with good efficiency. However, 20-30% of patients taking the  develop secondary cancer in the central nervous system (CNS), which is associated with an acquired resistance to alectinib. Seiji Yano from Kanazawa University and colleagues have now made progress towards a novel therapy against this resistance: a combination of alectinib with other drugs.
Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors
The drugs that Yano and colleagues tested in combination with alectinib on a mouse model were of a type known as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, including osimertinib and erlotinib. Both are being used as medication for treating NSCLC. The former was approved in 2017 as cancer treatment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission. Yano and colleagues obtained results showing that EGFR inhibitors counteract resistance to alectinib and have therefore potential in novel therapies for NSCLC and secondary cancers in the CNS.
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-osimertinib-progression-free-survival-asian-egfr-mutated.html

Tuesday, September 8, 2020

Nourianz Approved to Treat 'Off' Episodes in Parkinson Disease

Istradefylline.png
In continuation of my update on Levodopa 
Nourianz (istradefylline) tablets have been approved as an add-on treatment to levodopa/carbidopa for adults with Parkinson disease experiencing "off" episodes, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced yesterday.
The drug is available in 20-mg or 40-mg doses, but the maximum recommended dosage in patients taking CYP3A4 inhibitors and those with moderate hepatic impairment is 20 mg once daily. The safety information for Nourianz states that use of the drug should be avoided in these patient populations.
Data from four 12-week placebo-controlled clinical studies demonstrated the effectiveness of Nourianz, a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, in treating "off" episodes in 1,143 PD patients who were receiving treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Compared with patients who received placebo, patients who received Nourianz experienced a statistically significant decrease in daily "off" time from baseline.
The most commonly reported adverse reactions with Nourianz included dyskinesia, dizziness, constipation, nausea, hallucination, and insomnia. The FDA noted that physicians should monitor patients for the development or progression of dyskinesia while taking Nourianz. A reduction in dosage or stoppage of Nourianz should be considered in the case of hallucinations, psychotic behavior, or impulsive/compulsive behavior. Nourianz should not be used during pregnancy, and women with childbearing potential should use contraception during treatment.
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Istradefylline#section=2D-Structure          https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istradefylline
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Saturday, August 22, 2020

Tramadol Linked to Increased Hip Fracture Risk in Adults Aged ≥50


In continuation of my update on Tramadol

Tramadol as a racemic mixture.svg

For older adults, initiation of tramadol is associated with an increased risk for hip fracture compared with initiation of codeine, ibuprofen, and other commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, according to a study published online Feb. 5 in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.
Jie Wei, Ph.D., from Central South University in Changsha, China, and colleagues examined the association between tramadol and the risk for hip fracture among individuals aged 50 years or older without a history of hip fracture, cancer, or opioid use disorder. Five sequential propensity score-matched cohort studies were assembled, including participants initiating tramadol (146,956 participants) or one of the following: codeine (146,956 participants), naproxen (115,109 participants), ibuprofen (107,438 participants), celecoxib (43,130 participants), or etoricoxib (27,689 participants).
The researchers identified 518 hip fractures in the tramadol cohort and 401 in the codeine cohort (3.7 versus 2.9/1,000 person-years) during one-year follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.28 for tramadol versus codeine). Hip fracture risk was higher in the tramadol cohort compared with the naproxen (2.9 versus 1.7/1,000 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.69), ibuprofen (3.4 versus 2.0/1,000 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.65), celecoxib (3.4 versus 1.8/1,000 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.85), and etoricoxib (2.9 versus 1.5/1,000 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.96) cohorts.
"Considering the significant impact of hip fracture on morbidity, mortality, and health care cost, our results point to the need to consider tramadol's associated risk of fracture in clinical practice and treatment guidelines," the authors write.


https://asbmr.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.3933

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tramadol












Tramadol Linked to Increased Hip Fracture Risk in Adults Aged ≥50 

Thursday, July 9, 2020

A single dose of magic mushroom compound reduces anxiety and depression among cancer patients

Kekulé, skeletal formula of canonical psilocybin

In continuation of my update on psilocybin
Magic mushrooms are wild or cultivated mushrooms containing psilocybin, which is a naturally occurring hallucinogenic and psychoactive compound. A single dose of psilocybin provides long-term relief of anxiety and depression in cancer patients, a new study found.
A team of researchers at the New York University Grossman School of Medicine has found that a one-time, single dose of psilocybin, the compound found in psychedelic mushroom or magic mushroom, combined with psychotherapy, has been linked to a marked improvement in existential and emotional distress in patients with cancer. The drug’s effect has persisted for nearly five years after administration.
The study, published in the Journal of Psychopharmacologyhighlights the efficacy of psilocybin in reducing anxiety levels and depression in cancer patients. Patients with cancer who received the compound reported reductions in anxiety, depression, demoralization, hopelessness, and death anxiety nearly five years after receiving a single dose of the drug and psychotherapy.

Psilocybin effects

Psilocybin is a known hallucinogenic substance commonly found in mushrooms growing in South America, Mexico, Europe, and the United States. A schedule-I controlled substance, the compound has a high potential for abuse. However, people use it as a recreational drug, and over the past years, studies have analyzed its potential for medical purposes.
The compound has both positive and negative effects. It has been studied to relieve symptoms of anxiety and depression but has been known to trigger psychotic episodes. The drug has long been used recreationally due to its hallucinogenic effects, which work by altering a person’s perception, thoughts, and feelings.

Promising results

In the current study, the researchers conducted a long-term within-subjects follow-up analysis of self-reported symptomatology among 15 participants, who agreed to participate at an average of 3.2 to 4.5 years, following the administration of psilocybin.
The researchers noted that among the participants, about 60 to 80 percent of them had met the criteria for clinically significant anxiolytic or antidepressant responses after 4.5 years after receiving the drug. Further, 71 to 100 percent attributed positive life changes, thanks to the combination of psilocybin and psychotherapy treatment, rating it among the most spiritually significant and personally-meaningful experiences in their lifetime.


“These findings suggest that psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy holds promise in promoting long-term relief from cancer-related psychiatric distress. Limited conclusions, however, can be drawn regarding the efficacy of this therapy due to the crossover design of the parent study,” the researchers wrote on the paper.
“Nonetheless, the present study adds to the emerging literature base suggesting that psilocybin-facilitated therapy may enhance the psychological, emotional, and spiritual well-being of patients with life-threatening cancer,” they added.
The authors said psilocybin shows promise as an important tool for enhancing psychotherapy’s efficacy and eventually, providing relief for symptoms of anxiety and depression.  While the exact mechanism on how psilocybin works are not fully understood, the researchers believe the drug makes the brain more receptive to new thought patterns and ideas.


It is also believed that the compound targets a brain network, called the default mode network, which becomes activated when individuals perform mind wandering and self-reflection. These activities aid in making sense of oneself and a sense of coherent narrative identity.
In most people with anxiety and depression, the said network becomes excessively active and has been tied to feelings of worry, rigid thinking, and rumination. The compound appears to work to shift the activity in the network, allowing people to have a broader perspective of their lives and behaviors.
The team plans to further conduct additional studies with bigger trials in patients who belong to diverse ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Also, they hope to conduct more studies on patients with advanced cancer-related psychiatric and existential distress.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881119897615?journalCode=jopa&
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psilocybin

Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Plant flavonols significantly reduce Alzheimer’s risk

A new study published in the journal Neurology in January 2020 concludes that increasing the intake of plant flavonols steeply reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) by up to a half. In other words, AD could be prevented in many people simply by regularly eating and drinking more foods containing these compounds such as tea, oranges, and broccoli.

Alzheimer’s disease

AD is a progressive brain disorder in which the individual loses cognitive skills, including memory and thinking skills, and the ability to perform simple tasks. It is by far the leading cause of such disorders and affects over 5 million Americans.
One study was carried out on over 900 people, who were part of a community-wide ongoing larger research project called the Rush Memory and Aging (MAP) Project. These participants were assessed yearly for their neurologic health and dietary patterns, for an average of 6 years, but some for as long as 12 years. The average age was 81 years, and 3 out of 4 were female.

The findings

In the first study, 220/921 participants developed AD during the study. The risk of AD fell with a greater intake of flavonols. This finding held good even after the researchers adjusted for other health-associated factors – because those with the highest total flavonol intake were also the best educated, most active and took part in more cognitive activities. They also accounted for genetic factors like the presence of the APOE4 gene, and for cardiovascular risk factors that could influence the risk of AD, such as diabetes mellitus, history of heart attack, or stroke, or hypertension.
When classified into five groups based on decreasing flavonol intake, the participants in the first group (highest intake) consumed over 15 mg of flavonols a day. Compared to those in the lowest fifth (about 5 mg a day), these individuals showed an approximately 50% reduction in AD risk.
In concrete terms, 28 of 186 patients in the highest-intake group developed AD, vs. 54 of 182 in the lowest-intake group.
With respect to individual flavonols, kaempferol intake was linked to a reduction of almost 50%, and both myricetin and isorhamnetin by 40% each. A fourth flavonol, called quercetin, had no noticeable effect on AD risk.
Participants with the highest flavonol intake drank about one cup of black tea a day. Kale, and about a glass of red wine each day, could also supply flavonols.

Sources of flavonols

Kaempferol is richly present in green leafy vegetables, including spinach, broccoli, beans, tea and kale – and also in tea. Isorhamnetin-rich foods include olive oil, red wine, pears and tomato sauce. Myricetin is found in tea, kale, oranges, tomatoes and red wine.
Researcher Thomas Holland says, “More research is needed to confirm these results, but these are promising findings. Eating more fruits and vegetables and drinking more tea could be a fairly inexpensive and easy way for people to help stave off Alzheimer's dementia.”

Implications

Many scientists disagree with the emphasis on flavonols. Though these were thought to have antioxidant activity in the body, this theory was discredited many decades earlier. Antioxidant activity ceases when they are ingested and subjected to the activity of enzymes in the digestive tract.
They point out that flavonols are found in many plants, fruits and vegetables, which have been associated with good health for centuries. Nutritionists say that the AD-delaying effects of such foods are likely due to other plant chemicals which are relatively more abundant. On the other hand, taking flavonol pills or tea extracts is unlikely to produce the same healthful effect, and overdoses could be counterproductive.
This is not to say that eating more flavonol-rich foods or drinking a cup of black tea in the morning would hurt, since any foods containing these chemicals would also contain many more healthful compounds including vitamins, minerals and plant fiber. Holland makes a valid point with his conclusion: “'With the elderly population increasing worldwide, any decrease in the number of people with this devastating disease, or even delaying it for a few years, could have an enormous benefit on public health.”
https://n.neurology.org/content/early/2020/01/29/WNL.0000000000008981

Tuesday, July 7, 2020

New compound prevents amyloid formation to fight Alzheimer’s disease

It is known that Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the formation of amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brain. A novel compound shows promise in preventing amyloid formation, fighting Alzheimer’s disease development.
Graphical abstract: Substrate interaction inhibits γ-secretase production of amyloid-β peptides
       


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting about 50 million people worldwide. In the United States, 5.5 million people are living with neurodegenerative diseases, making it the 6th leading cause of death in the country.
AD is caused by the abnormal build-up of proteins, amyloid, and tau, in and around the brain. These proteins form plaques and tangles in brain cells, leading to memory loss and other symptoms. Abnormal proteins form toxic clumps, dubbed as fibrils, inside the brain, affecting brain regions that are vital for brain processes.
In the study published in the journal Chemical Communications by the Royal Society of Chemistry, reveals that the new compound, known as “C1”, can prevent the enzyme gamma-secretase from producing amyloids.

What is the role of C1?

Amyloid fibrils are made of peptide amyloid-beta, produced when certain enzymes make cuts to the amyloid precursor protein, which is found in the brain cell membrane. A type of covalent gamma-secretase inhibitor, the compound works by blocking the active site of the enzyme, hence, preventing the formation of amyloid.
The team of researchers at the Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute noted that there were samples of gamma-secretase inhibitors in the past, but these failed since they have severe side effects. What happened is, the inhibitors used stopped all the functions of gamma-secretase.
“Our compound binds to the cleavage site of the precursor protein instead of the enzyme itself, which may avoid many problems associated with traditional enzyme inhibitors,” Chunyu Wang, a professor of biological sciences and author of the study, said.
The team started to screen drugs to determine a potential compound that can target the amyloid precursor protein substrate, blocking the gamma-secretase activity that is tied to amyloid production. Using a computer model, they tested millions of compounds in the hopes of finding the one that can show promise in battling Alzheimer’s disease.


Though there were several candidates found, C1 showed high accuracy and effectiveness in cell cultures and test tubes. The patent for the compound is still pending but the researchers hope that the new drug can be studied more to determine its efficacy in people at a high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Implications of the compound

The discovery of the novel compound can pave the way for the development of new drugs that can prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease. The new approach targets the disease, based on tis principal pathology.
Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease and the treatment revolves around providing a safe environment for patients. Therapy is also effective in providing support, but scientists are racing to finally find a medicine for the condition.

What is Alzheimer’s disease?

Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia, which is a neurodegenerative disease. The disease is irreversible and progressive, which means that it worsens over time. The condition affects brain sections responsible for memory, thinking skills, and cognitive ability. In time, the symptoms worsen, often causing the inability to carry out the simplest tasks or activities of daily living.
The disease first appears in people who are in their mid-60s but can emerge earlier in some cases. Scientists don’t fully understand the exact cause of Alzheimer’s disease, but it may be a combination of various factors. These include age, since older adults are mostly affected, and hereditary because it can run in families. There is also evidences that changes in the brain starting even years before the start of the symptoms may have occurred.

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2020/CC/C9CC09170J#!divAbstract


Monday, July 6, 2020

Experimental Antiviral Drug to Be Tested Against New Coronavirus


In continuation of my update on Remdesivir

A clinical trial to test an experimental antiviral drug's effectiveness against the new coronavirus will be conducted in China as it battles a coronavirus outbreak there.
GS-5734 structure.png


The drug Remdesivir -- created to fight infectious diseases such as Ebola and SARS -- will be tested by a medical team from Beijing-based China-Japan Friendship Hospital, a hospital spokeswoman told Bloomberg News. The trial will be conducted in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, the epicenter of the outbreak that has sickened more than 17,000 people and killed more than 360 in China. Researchers will recruit up to 270 patients with mild and moderate pneumonia caused by the virus, according to Chinese news outlet The PaperBloomberg News reported.
Remdesivir is not approved for use by any drug regulator in the world, but it is being given to patients infected with the new coronavirus because there are no approved treatments, drug maker Gilead said in a statement. The company said it is working with Chinese health officials to organize the clinical trial to determine its effectiveness and safety of the drug in patients infected with the new coronavirus. The HIV medication Kaletra has also been recommended by China's health regulator as an antiviral treatment for the new coronavirus, and clinical trials of that drug are also being arranged, according to The Paper.
On Sunday, officials reported three more cases of the new coronavirus in California, bringing the total in the United States to 11. Worldwide, there are now 146 coronavirus cases in at least 23 countries outside China, according to the World Health Organization. One death outside China has been reported in the Philippines.

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-02-03/gilead-drug-to-undergo-human-trials-in-china-to-cure-coronavirus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remdesivir

Friday, July 3, 2020

Bumetanide Promising for Reducing Autism Symptoms

Bumetanide structure.svg

Bumetanide seems effective for improving symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children, according to a study published online Jan. 27 in Translational Psychiatry.
Lingli Zhang, from the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, and colleagues examined the efficacy of bumetanide in a trial involving 83 children with ASD, aged 3 to 6 years, who were randomly assigned to receive bumetanide or no bumetanide (control).
The researchers found that the bumetanide group had a significant reduction in symptom severity compared with the control group, as indicated by the total Children Autism Rating Scale score and number of items assigned a score of ≥3. The Clinical Global Impressions confirmed the improvement in clinical symptoms. In both the insular cortex (IC) and visual cortex, the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate ratio decreased more rapidly during the three-month period in the bumetanide versus the control group. In the bumetanide group, this decrease in the IC correlated with symptom improvement.
"This study is important and exciting because it means that there is a drug that can improve social learning and reduce ASD symptoms during the time when the brains of these children are still developing," one coauthor said in a statement. "We know that GABA and glutamate are key chemicals in the brain for plasticity and learning, and so these children should have an opportunity for better quality of life and well-being."
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-020-0692-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bumetanide

Thursday, July 2, 2020

A high-fiber diet may counteract the harmful health effects of pollutants


In continuation of my update on a diet high in fiber


Research from the University of Kentucky's Superfund Research Center (UK-SRC) shows that a diet high in fiber could possibly reverse the adverse effects that environmental toxins have on cardiovascular health.

The findings are part of UK-SRC's "Project #1," which examines how nutrients affect toxicity caused by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vascular tissues.
PCBs are man-made chemicals that were used in industrial and commercial applications and have been linked to a number of adverse health effects in humans and animals. Although they were banned more than 40 years ago, PCBs can still be released into the environment from poorly maintained hazardous waste sites.
Prior UK-SRC research in the lab of Bernhard Hennig, a professor in UK's Department of Animal & Food Sciences, found a connection between PCBs and cardiovascular disease. Pan Deng, a postdoctoral researcher working in Hennig's lab, is continuing this research with a study that found that nutrients including fiber reduced PCB toxicity in multiple organ systems, including gut microbiota, liver and vasculature.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1NZnho5zOU#action=share
Deng's field of research is called metabolomics, and it examines how metabolites within a cell, tissue or biofluid of an organism respond to external stressors—in this case the toxic exposure from PCBs. Deng checks levels of nutrients and pollutants in the cells through liquid and gas chromatography testing. The process is called metabolic profiling.
"Metabolic profiling gave us the power to discover how environmental pollutants contribute to human disease. The very important thing is that this technology can be applied to biological samples obtained from humans," said Deng.
"Using animal models, we found that eating a high-fiber diet can prevent pollutant-induced cardiovascular disease," said Deng. "This finding may lead to nutritional and therapeutic interventions in people who are exposed to PCBs."
The findings may be beneficial to those impacted by or residing near toxic Superfund chemicals, which include PCBs.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated thousands of contaminated sites in the U.S. as "Superfund" sites. They include manufacturing facilities, processing plants, landfills and mining sites where hazardous waste has been improperly managed.
Kentucky is home to 20 (13 active) EPA National Priorities List Superfund hazardous waste sites. The UK-SRC is an interdisciplinary program including researchers from several UK colleges that strives to reduce the negative health and environmental impacts of chlorinated organic compounds found at these sites across Kentucky and the U.S.
The UK-SRC is funded by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS) and is one of NIEHS's nationwide family of Superfund Research Programs. Specifically, UK-SRC biomedical research examines potential roles for nutritional components and lifestyle choices to minimize negative human health impacts related to chemical exposures.






https://phys.org/news/2016-11-interaction-environmental-toxin-exposure-nutrition.html