Showing posts with label Tuberculosis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tuberculosis. Show all posts

Thursday, July 22, 2021

Progress towards new treatments for tuberculosis

Boosting the body's own disease-fighting immune pathway could provide answers in the desperate search for new treatments for tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis still represents an enormous global disease burden and is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide.

Led by WEHI's Dr. Michael Stutz and Professor Marc Pellegrini and published in Immunity, the study uncovered how cells infected with tuberculosis bacteria can die, and that using new medicines to enhance particular forms of cell death decreased the severity of the disease in a preclinical model.

Fighting antibiotic resistance

Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that infect the lungs, spreading from person to person through the air. A challenge in the fight against tuberculosis is that the bacteria that cause the disease have developed resistance to most antibiotic treatments, leading to a need for new treatment approaches.

Tuberculosis bacteria grow within immune cells in the lungs. One of the ways that cells protect against these 'intracellular' pathogens is to undergo a form of cell death called apoptosis—destroying the cell as well as the microbes within it.

Using preclinical models, researchers sequentially deleted key apoptosis effectors, to demonstrate their roles in controlling tuberculosis infections. This demonstrated that a proportion of tuberculosis-infected cells could die by apoptosis—opening up new opportunities for controlling the disease.

Using host-directed therapies to reduce disease burden

Dr. Stutz said researchers then tested new drugs that force cells to die. This revealed that a drug-like compound that inhibits cell death-regulatory proteins called IAPs could promote death of the infected cells.

"When we treated our infection models with this compound, we were able to significantly reduce the amount of tuberculosis disease," he said.

"The longer the treatment was used, the greater the reduction of disease."

The research team was able to replicate these results using various different IAP inhibitors.

"Excitingly, many of these compounds are already in clinical trials for other types of diseases and have proven to be safe and well-tolerated by patients," Dr. Stutz said.

"We predict that if these compounds were progressed for treating tuberculosis, they would be most effective if used alongside existing antibiotic treatments."

Opening the door to new treatment methods

Professor Marc Pellegrini said until now,  were the only treatment for tuberculosis, which were limited in their application due to increasing antibiotic resistance.

"Unlike antibiotics, which directly kill , IAP inhibitors kill the  that the  need to survive," he said.

"The beauty of using a host-directed therapy is that it doesn't directly target the microbe, it targets a host process. By targeting the host rather than the microbe, the chances of resistance developing are incredibly low."

The team hope the research will lead to better treatments for tuberculosis.

"This research increases our understanding of the types of immune responses that are beneficial to us, and this is an important step towards new treatments for tuberculosis, very few of which have been developed in the last 40 years," Dr. Stutz said.

"We have demonstrated that host-directed therapies are viable for infections such as , which is particularly important in the era of extensive antibiotic resistance."

Monday, September 28, 2015

Scientists identify new agent to combat tuberculosis

Click to see the large picture

New hope in the fight against tuberculosis

Above pic: The protein forms a homodimeric ring (shown as blue cartoon & surface representation). Each polypetide chain binds one molecule of griselimycin (red). The optimized compound cyclohexylgriselimycin contains an additional cyclohexane moiety (yellow, shown only for the ligand in the foreground).

According to figures of the World Health Organization, some 8.7 million people contracted tuberculosis in 2012 and this disease is fatal for approximately 1.3 million people throughout the world each year. One of the main problems is that the tuberculosis pathogens have become resistant to the antibiotics used to fight them. Scientists from the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) in Saarbrücken, the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) in Braunschweig and the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) joined forces with scientists from Sanofi, a global health care company, and identified a new agent, which might potentially remedy these problems. The scientists just described this agent and its unique mechanism of action in the highly renowned scientific journal Science.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main cause of tuberculosis. The treatment for drug-susceptible tuberculosis consists of the daily administration of multiple drugs for a minimum of six months. Lack of adherence to this regimen can result in treatment failure and the emergence of drug resistance. "Complexity and duration of the treatment are true issues and the main reasons for the development of resistant pathogens," says Prof Rolf Müller, who is the Executive Director and head of the Microbial Natural Substances department of the HIPS, an institution jointly sponsored by the HZI and Saarland University.

Consequently, there is an urgent need for new medications and therapeutic approaches to both fight the resistant pathogens, as well as to shorten the duration for the treatment of drug-susceptible organisms. Based on earlier reports, Müller, in collaboration with Prof Jacques Grosset from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, and his colleagues from the HZI and Sanofi scientists, initially focused on the natural substance called griselimycin. The potential of this natural substance, was discovered in the 1960s. However, due to the success of other tuberculosis medications and its low efficacy in an infection model, the substance was not developed any further at the time.

"We resumed the work on this agent and optimised it such that it shows excellent activity in the infection model - even against multi-resistant tuberculosis pathogens," says Müller. In the course of their work, the scientists discovered that cyclohexylgriselimycin, a variant of griselimycin, is particularly effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, both in cells and in the animal model. Importantly, cyclohexylgriselimycin was effective when administered orally, which is key in tuberculosis treatment, non-orally available drugs are extremely burdensome to administer daily during the many months of treatment. Moreover, combining this substance with current TB antibiotics increases the efficacy compared to the antibiotic cocktail that is usually administered.

Sunday, May 1, 2011

Maxwell Biotech, Sequella enter license agreement to commercialize SQ109 for TB treatment

Saturday, November 27, 2010

Novel iron complexes (quinoxaline) as potential antitubercular agents...

A team of researchers from Spain and Latin America have synthesized two iron compounds(complex with qunoxaline derivative below structure)  that inhibit the in vitro growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes tuberculosis. Due their low level of toxicity in mammel cells, the compounds could be used in the future as therapeutic agents and hospital disinfectants.  

As per the claim by the researchers, the complexes are better than the second line drugs (we know already about drug resistant tubercular species and tuberculosis is being considered as re-emerging disease due to the increase in the number of people with HIV and other viruses that attack the immune system, as well as to the increasing consumption of immunosuppressive and recreational drugs).  Another advantage of the iron compounds is that they show low toxicity in mammal cells, as demonstrated by the experiments performed with mice cells.

"That is why these compounds are useful as hospital disinfectants or therapeutic agents," the Uruguayan researchers highlight, albeit recalling that, at present, they in vitro trials "and the line of research remains open to learn more about how they act."
Researchers conclude that, the novel complexes showed in vitro growth inhibitory activity on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294), together with very low unspecific cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells (cultured murine cell line J774). Both complexes showed higher inhibitory effects on M. tuberculosis than the “second-line” therapeutic drugs....

Ref : Dinorah Gambino, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry Volume 104, Issue 11

Friday, May 14, 2010

PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) a potential target for drugs that fight tuberculosis.

 In continuation of my update on tuberculosis and drug discovery ..... A new  research conducted at Weill Cornell Medical College sheds light on a previously unrecognized aspect of fatty acid metabolism that could potentially lead to new targets for drug therapy. A team led by Dr. Sabine Ehrt, professor of microbiology and immunology at Weill Cornell Medical College, reported that Mtb relies primarily on gluconeogenic substrates for in vivo growth and persistence, and that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK see picture) plays a pivotal role in the growth and survival of Mtb during infections in mice, making PEPCK a potential target for drugs that fight tuberculosis.

Dr. Ehrt and her colleagues found a way to silence the gene encoding PEPCK in Mtb during mouse infections to assess the importance of gluconeogenesis for Mtb's ability to maintain a chronic infection.
 "Silencing a gene when the pathogen is not or only slowly replicating, after an infection has established, is an important tool for studying diseases such as TB, which can be dormant for years only to become active again years later." says Dr.Ehrt...
 It is especially challenging as the infection can lay dormant in the body even though there are no symptoms. Researchers investigated the metabolic requirements of Mtb during acute and chronic infections and found that the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK is critical for both.

Interestingly, the  study used a novel mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling tool, developed at Weill Cornell (in collaboration with Agilent Technologies) by Dr. Kyu Rhee to biochemically examine Mtb carbon metabolism. As per the claim by the researchers,  the tool has provided the first direct insights into the metabolic architecture of Mtb.

 Though the current treatments used  to treat Mtb are effective, the treatment times are too long and the regimens too complex, which  leads to treatment failures (due to poor adherence and multi drug resistance).   We need new, safer drugs that work faster to eliminate tuberculosis.  Dr. Ehrt hopes that her work will eventually lead to new drug therapies to treat tuberculosis.....

Ref :

Friday, May 7, 2010

Eliminating inherent drug resistance in tuberculosis....

In continuation of my update on drug resistant TB and the drug development for TB, I found this info interesting to share with.

Dr. John Blanchard of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine has come up with really  interesting  findings about how to "eliminate inherent drug resistance in tuberculosis".   

When the M. tuberculosis genome was sequenced a few years ago, the presence of  beta-lactamase enzyme was discovered. Most scientists didn't pay much attention to this discovery and beta-lactams   never have been systematically used to treat TB. However Dr. John,  thought it would be an attractive therapeutic target, considering several beta-lactamase inhibitors had been developed for other bacteria.

If we could inactivate this inactivator enzyme, it would expose TB bacteria to a whole new range of antibiotics," he says. 
While M. tuberculosis was resistant to most beta-lactamase inhibitors,  Blanchard's group found that the drug clavulanate was effective in shutting down the TB enzyme. 

The combination of clavulanate (see above right structure- its potassium salt) with the beta-lactam   meropenem (see below: left structure) could effectively sterilize laboratory cultures of TB within two weeks, including several XDR-strains (XDR strains are even more resilient than multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains).  Blanchard notes this finding was exciting since, despite such high rates of drug resistance, research into new TB drugs is not a high priority in industrialized countries (for socio-economic reasons), and thus the best short-term approach might be identifying other already FDA approved antibiotics that are effective against TB -like meropenem and clavulanate.

Blanchard is currently progressing with the next steps of the therapeutic process, which includes both detailed animal studies and setting up some small-scale trials with XDR-TB patients in developing nations...

(Source : a presentation at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology’s annual meeting, titled “Drug resistance in tuberculosis,” by Dr. John Blanchard).

Ref :

Thursday, April 29, 2010

New study confirms 98.9% specificity of the T-SPOTspan TB assay

The study highlights the very high specificity of the T-SPOT.TB assay and confirms its utility in the identification of latent TB infection....

New study confirms 98.9% specificity of the T-SPOTspan style="vertical-align:super; font-size:80%;"®/span.iTB/i assay

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

PA-824 - Aerosol: New Tool Against Tuberculosis?

We know the epidemic rates of HIV/TB coinfection as well as emerging multidrug-resistant  (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB strains those are contributing to increased TB-associated deaths worldwide. 

Now PA-824 (see structure), a compound capable of being formulated into a dry powder, has not only shown promising activity against MDR (multidrug-resistant tuberculosis) and XDR (extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or latent TB) but has also proven safe and effective in patients coinfected with HIV and TB. Previous studies showed that PA-824 was well-tolerated in tablet form, however, side effects such as headache and stomach discomfort were reported. Aerosol delivery of PA-824 directly to the primary site of infection would limit systemic exposure and ultimately eliminate potentially bothersome side effects.

About  PA-824 :

Nitroimidazoles are widely used drugs in humans for a variety of primarily anaerobic microbial infections. Metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole, is an important bactericidal agent for the treatment of anaerobic infections  and shows excellent selective toxicity toward anaerobic bacterial and protozoal pathogens. This class of compounds has only recently begun to be explored for Mtb, because only anaerobic activity of metronidazole against Mtb has been reported. Bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles such as PA-824 (a nitroimidazo-oxazine) and CGI-17341 (a nitroimidazo-oxazole) have inhibitory activity against aerobically growing and nonreplicating anaerobic Mtb. Although anaerobic conditions have not been demonstrated during TB disease in humans, various authors have suggested that an anaerobic microenvironment may contribute to a nonreplicating state that may be linked with latent disease in humans. Thus, PA-824 has been developed, in part, because it may be a promising lead for therapy against latent disease that may be linked to anaerobically persisting bacilli. The Global Alliance for TB Drug Development has recently initiated phase-I clinical trials with PA-824 

Researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; and Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts, lead by  Dr. Anthony J Hickey  have achieved this interesting finding, i.e., potential use of PA-824 dry powder aerosols in the treatment of TB.

In the study guinea pigs were used to evaluate the effects of PA-824 aerosols on TB infection. One month following infection with TB some guinea pigs received high daily aerosol treatments while others received low daily treatments for 4 weeks. Lung and spleen analysis of guinea pigs receiving the high dose of aerosol PA-284 showed less inflammation, bacterial burden and tissue damage.

"The present studies indicate the potential use of PA-824 dry powder aerosols in the treatment of TB,” say the researchers".
Ref :

Saturday, April 10, 2010

UT Southwestern researchers find clues to TB drug resistance.....

In continuation of my update on TB and its challenges...

Now researchers from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, have come up with some interesting info. i.e.,  a type of blood pressure medication shows promise at overcoming some drug-resistant tuberculosis, at least in the laboratory

Dr. Gumbo (lead researcher) and his colleagues used an experimental apparatus to simulate the way TB bacteria grow in the human lung. When they exposed the bacteria to drugs commonly used to treat the disease (ethambutol and isoniazid),  the bacterial cells activated a cellular mechanism that pumps each drug out of the cells. 
"The pumping action enables the rapid emergence of high-level resistance to the drugs whether administered together as well as individually, Dr. Gumbo said".
As per the claim by the researchers, resistance was drastically reduced  when the researchers gave the blood-pressure drug reserpine – which is known to block this pumping action – to the TB cells before administering ethambutol and isoniazid.

Researchers now want to test all the first-line drug treatments together with the pump blocker in humans. Hope they will come up with positive results.....
Ref  :

Sunday, March 28, 2010

Self-Poisoning of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by targeting GlgE in an a-glucan pathway...

In the past few years, extremely drug resistant strains of TB have arisen that can’t be eliminated by any drugs, so new strategies for attacking TB are urgently needed.

Now, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have found two novel ways of killing the bacteria that cause tuberculosis.

In searching for a new Achilles’ heel for M. tuberculosis, Dr. Jacobs and colleagues focused on an enzyme called GlgE. Previous research had suggested  that GlgE might be essential for the growth of TB bacteria.        (building polysaccharides) GlgE would also be an excellent drug target because there are no enzymes similar to it in humans or in the bacteria of the human gut.

Using genetic and biochemical approaches, William Jacobs and colleagues identified four enzymes involved in a pathway that converts a naturally-occurring sugar compound into polysaccharides called alpha-glucans. The scientists found that inactivating one of these enzymes, TreS, was not lethal to the bacteria, indicating that this pathway is not required for growth. 

However, inactivating GlgE was lethal, causing the buildup of toxic levels of the enzyme's sugar substrate, maltose-1-phosphate. In addition, the scientists found that the combined inactivation of TreS and an enzyme for an alternate alpha-glucan biosynthetic pathway was lethal, highlighting the important roles of alpha-glucan's in M. tuberculosis growth.

Sure enough, when the researchers inhibited GlgE, the bacteria underwent "suicidal self-poisoning": a sugar called maltose 1-phosphate accumulated to toxic levels that damaged bacterial DNA, causing the death of TB bacteria grown in Petri dishes as well as in infected mice.

The researchers discovered a second way of killing TB after observing a crucial connection between their novel alpha glucan pathway and a second pathway that also synthesizes alpha glucans. 

When the researchers knocked out one of the other enzymes in their novel pathway, the pathway's shutdown didn't kill the bacteria; similarly, inactivating an enzyme called Rv3032 in the second alpha glucan pathway failed to kill the microbes. But inactivating both of those enzymes caused what the researchers term synthetic lethality: two inactivations that separately were nonlethal but together cause bacterial death. 

Though the biological role of the GlgE pathway remains to be elucidated, GlgE and the alpha-glucan pathways more generally, are possible drug targets that can now be tested in in vivo models of tuberculosis infection....

"The bacteria that cause TB need to synthesize alpha glucans," notes Dr. Jacobs. "And from the bacterial point of view, you can't knock out both of these alpha glucan pathways simultaneously or you're dead. So if we were to make drugs against GlgE and Rv3032, the combination would be extremely potent. And since TB bacteria need both of those alpha glucan pathways to live, it's very unlikely that this combination therapy would leave behind surviving bacteria that could develop into resistant strains."

Ref :

Thursday, March 25, 2010

Methionine Aminopeptidases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as Novel Antimycobacterial Targets ..

Suspecting that a particular protein in tuberculosis was likely to be vital to the bacteria's survival, Johns Hopkins scientists screened 175,000 small chemical compounds and identified a potent class of compounds that selectively slows down this protein's activity and, in a test tube, blocks TB growth, demonstrating that the protein is indeed a vulnerable target.
This class of chemical compounds attacks TB by inhibiting methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP), an essential enzyme found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans, and that clearly has been conserved throughout evolution because of its important task of ensuring the proper manufacture of proteins.

Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is a metalloprotease that removes the N-terminal methionine during protein synthesis. To assess the importance of the two MetAPs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, researchers overexpressed and purified each of the MetAPs to near homogeneity and showed that both were active as MetAP enzymes in vitro. 
Researchers screened a library of 175,000 compounds against MtMetAP1c and identified 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone class of compounds as inhibitors of both MtMetAPs. It was found that the MtMetAP inhibitors were active against replicating and aged nongrowing M. tuberculosis. Overexpression of either MtMetAP1a or MtMetAP1c in M. tuberculosis conferred resistance of bacterial cells to the inhibitors. As per the claim by the researchers, knockdown of MtMetAP1a, but not MtMetAP1c, resulted in decreased viability of M. tuberculosis and they conclude  that MtMetAP1a is a promising target for developing antituberculosis agents.
The scientists cautioned that although the MetAP inhibitors prevent TB growth in test tubes, they have a long way to go before being declared safe and effective to treat TB patients...
"Judging from potency, a MetAP inhibibitor alone probably won't wipe out TB," Liu says. "TB is so hard to treat that the standard therapy involves a cocktail of multiple drugs; no single compound is powerful enough. Our hope is that someday an inhibitor of MetAP will become a new component to enhance the existing therapy."
Ref : Jun O. Liu, Chemistry & Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1, 29 January 2010, Pages 86-97

Friday, February 19, 2010

TB disease mechanism and the molecule to block It - discovered ......

We know about the drug resistant tuberculosis and the havoc its causing, so there is an urgent need to  develop new drugs that can be useful. (have covered some articles on  drug development  for drug resistant TB in my earlier blogs). Many groups have tried to explain the resistance,  but now  researchers from Indiana University School of Medicine have identified a mechanism used by the tuberculosis bacterium to evade the body's immune system and have identified a compound that blocks the bacterium's ability to survive in the host, which could lead to new drugs to treat tuberculosis

The focus of the research was TB actions inside macrophages (infection fighting cells in the body's immune system). Macrophage cells' tools include the production of special proteins called cytokines to attack foreign invaders. Infected macrophages can also initiate a self-destruction mechanism called apoptosis, which signals other immune system cells to mount a defense against the infection. 

TB bacteria are able to disable the macrophage defenses by secreting virulent factors into the host. The IU team found that the actions of a particular virulent factor a protein phosphatase enzyme called mPTPB  blocked both the production of the infection-fighting cytokines, and the macrophage's self-destruct system. 

As for as my knowledge goes,  phosphatases  (VE-PTP, Cdc25A, PTP1b, VHR, Shp-2, MptpA und MptpB) the  key regulators of various life processes are being studied for the diverse activities. The following is the brief summary ;

a). VE-TPT inhibition is very promising in the development of antiangiogenesis inhibitors in cancer therapy.
b). Cdc25A influences cell cycle regulation and may also be a target of interest in cancer therapy.
c). The phosphatase MptpB, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influences the host's immune 
     reaction in a tuberculosis infection.
d) VHR dephosphorylates MAP kinases in the activation loop THX, which plays an important role in signal
    transduction processes.
e) Inhibiting MptpB and Shp-2 opens up new directions in the search for antibiotics and
f) The Ptp1B enzyme plays an important role in developing a medicine against type 2 diabetes and the
   metabolic syndrome.

Though many researchers  tried to study the mechanism of action by which the  tuberculosis bacterium is getting resistance,  this group has come up with a drug and this is of great significance in my opinion.

Using combinatorial chemical synthesis and high-throughput screening, (HTS) the researchers developed the I-A09 compound, which successfully blocked the action of mPTPB. Tests involving live TB bacteria were conducted at the Institute of Tuberculosis Research, University of Illinois at Chicago

As per the claim by the lead researcher, Dr. Zhong-Yin Zhang, compound I-A09 is being evaluated in a TB animal model at the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. More potent forms of the I-A09 compound are being pursued by the IU team for possible future clinical testing. Hope the team  will come up with a solution to this problem in the days to come...

Ref :

Saturday, September 19, 2009

New Antituberculosis Compounds ?

We all know how TB has become a pandemic and several attempts to eradicate the disease have been tried and scientists are still finding new ways. However the most disadvantage part for the scientists lies in the fact that "the disease-causing bacteria have a sophisticated mechanism for surviving dormant in infected cells". i.e., TB bacteria have a sophisticated way to remove the damaged proteins — a protein-cleaving complex known as a proteasome — identified in earlier research by the Nathan lab. By breaking down damaged proteins, the proteasome allows the bacteria to remain dormant, and possibly go on to cause active TB. And hence finding drugs to disable the proteasome would be a new way to fight TB.

In developing proteasome-inhibitor drugs, scientists face several hurdles. A significant one is the fact that human cells also possess proteasomes, which are essential to their survival. To be effective, the drugs would have to specifically target the TB proteasome without adversely affecting the human protein-cleanup complex.

This study represents a shift in strategy for designing antibiotics that treat TB, says Dr. Lin (Assistant Research professor of Microbiology and Immunology at Weill Cornell Medical College). All the groups who tried focused on developing drugs that attacked the bacterium in its active phase, but this group has found a compound that may help to destroy it in its dormant stage.

The Weill Cornell team screened 20,000 compounds for TB proteasome inhibition activity. They identified and synthesized a group of inhibitors, which they then tested for their ability to inhibit the proteasome inside the mycobacteria. They also tested the compounds' effect on monkey epithelial cells and human immune system cells in culture. After reading this article, I could recollect the High Throughput Screening of my compounds (Southern Research Institute, Birmingham).  The newly synthesized compounds are specific, less toxic, more active and more over the inhibition of the TB proteasome is irreversible and about 1,000-fold more effective than the minor inhibition observed against human proteasomes.

The structural studies revealed that the inhibitor molecules block the proteasome's ability to degrade proteins in more than one way: by producing a direct chemical change to the proteasome active site, and by altering the conformation of the "pocket" into which protein fragments bind before being degraded. Congrats for this efforts and all the best for their future endeavor.... More....

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

Tuberculosis Patients Can Reduce Transmissability By Inhaling Interferon Through A Nebulizer

As for as my knowledge goes "Interferons" - (glycoproteins - natural cell-signaling proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges such as viruses, parasites and tumor cells).

1.  assist the immune response by inhibiting viral replication within host cells, activating natural killer cells and macrophages, increasing antigen presentation to T lymphocytes.

2. increasing the resistance of host cells to viral infection.

And are said to possess the antiviral and antitumour activity.   

But this finding is really interesting.................."Tuberculosis Patients Can Reduce Transmissability By Inhaling Interferon Through A Nebulizer

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Wednesday, January 14, 2009

A new avenue for TB therapy !

TB bacteria actually sends signals that encourage the growth of those organized granuloma structures, and for good reason: each granuloma serves as a kind of hub for the infectious bugs in the early stages of infection, allowing them to expand further and spread throughout the body. Which is something interesting in he sense that the earlier believed fact (i.e., masses of immune cells that form as a hallmark of tuberculosis (TB) have long been thought to be the body's way of trying to protect itself by literally walling off the bacteria) is being ruled out?. Scientists thought they were protective, but they are not - at least not in early infection. The bacteria use them to reproduce and disseminate themselves.
Not only do the bacteria expand themselves within the first granuloma to form, she added, but some of the immune cells in that initial mass leave to start new granulomas elsewhere. Those new granulomas then also serve as breeding grounds for the bacteria. The finding (Lalita Ramakrishnan and J.Davis). suggests a new avenue for TB therapy at an important time in the struggle against TB infection (not only the increasing number of patients, AIDS with TB and drug resistant TB). So if one can prevent granulomas that might be therapeutic either by intercepting the bacterial signal that spurs granulomas' formation or by manipulating the human immune system in some other way. Hope this research will go a long way in finding the solution to the epidemic drug resistant TB........