Showing posts with label Liraglutide. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Liraglutide. Show all posts

Monday, April 3, 2017

Liraglutide drug lowers blood sugar levels in diabetic patients taking large doses of insulin

In continuation of my update on   Liraglutide

Dr. Ildiko Lingvay, Associate Professor of Internal Medicine and Clinical Sciences at UT Southwestern Medical Center, designed the clinical trial, which looked at the effectiveness of liraglutide in patients who were taking high doses of insulin. 

"We have a growing population of obese patients who require larger and larger doses of insulin. The insulin causes them to put on more weight, which in turn means their glucose levels remain out of control. We wanted to test whether treating such patients with liraglutide would have an effect," said Dr. Lingvay.

Liraglutide, produced by Novo Nordisk, has several effects on the body: It increases insulin secretion; it reduces hunger; and it decreases glucagon secretion. Insulin and glucagon are molecules produced by the pancreas that have opposing effects, with insulin reducing blood sugar levels and glucagon increasing blood sugar levels. Insulin is secreted by beta cells in the pancreas and glucagon is secreted by alpha cells in the pancreas.

The study enrolled 71 Type 2 diabetes patients who were injecting large amounts of insulin each day, in most cases four or five shots a day. All of the patients had HbA1C levels that were 7.5 or higher (the goal for patients with diabetes is 7 or below). All of the patients were also overweight.

The patients in the study were randomly assigned to give themselves a daily injection of either a placebo or liraglutide in addition to their current therapy with a high dose of insulin. The results of the trial were clear, with the average HbA1C level of patients taking the drug dropping from 8.9 to 8, while long-term blood sugar levels were unchanged in the placebo group. The liraglutide patients also lost 4 ½ pounds on average, while the placebo group gained a small amount on average.

"This is less improvement than we normally see with liraglutide in patients who are not on insulin, but this is a huge improvement in a population that is so difficult to treat," said Dr. Lingvay.

Although the study was blinded - neither patients nor researchers knew which group a patient was assigned to - Ms. Sweat said that after a few weeks of being in the study she was sure that she had been assigned to the liraglutide group because her blood sugars were dropping dramatically.

"I thought I was doing the drug because my sugar finally went to normal," she said. "From the day I was diagnosed, my sugar was always high. After I started the study, for the first time in my life, my HbA1C went down, and I kept thinking, 'I must be taking the drug.' "

When the study ended, her physician prescribed liraglutide for her-whose attempt with other drugs were not successful."I give myself a shot every morning," the Garland woman said, adding that not only is her blood sugar level consistently better than it had been at any time before the study, but she has maintained a modest weight loss since the study began as well.

The study that Dr. Lingvay designed also looked at the mechanisms of action of liraglutide on this group of patients and the effect of the drug on the underlying disease, measuring insulin and glucagon blood levels following a meal.

The findings: Insulin production went up.

"The results were counterintuitive," said Dr. Lingvay. "One might expect that patients with such long-standing disease would have little or no residual beta-cell function and improvements would be driven through suppression of glucagon. To the contrary, we found that liraglutide exerted its hypoglycemic effect through improving insulin secretion."

Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Diabetes Drug Victoza May Help the Heart: Study

In continuation of my update on liraglutide
ChemSpider 2D Image | liraglutide | C172H265N43O51
The blood sugar-lowering drug Victoza (liraglutide) cuts the risk of heart attack and stroke in type 2 diabetes patients, a new study finds.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death among people with type 2 diabetes, the researchers noted.
The study was funded by the drug's maker, Novo Nordisk, and the U.S. National Institutes of Health. It included more than 9,300 adults from 32 countries who have type 2 diabetes and a high risk of heart disease.
About half took Victoza, while the other half took an inactive placebo. Both groups also took other medications for health problems, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol, the study authors said.
Tracking patients for three years, the researchers found that compared with patients in the placebo group, people who took Victoza had a 13 percent lower risk of heart attack or stroke. They also had a 22 percent lower risk of death from heart disease; a 15 percent lower risk of death from any cause; and a 22 percent lower risk of new evidence of advanced kidney disease.
Some patients did discontinue the drug due to "gastrointestinal events," according to the report.
The study was presented June 13 at the American Diabetes Association's annual meeting, in New Orleans. It was also published simultaneously in the New England Journal of Medicine.
"I've been excited about liraglutide for a long time because I think it's unique," said study senior author Dr. John Buse. He directs the Diabetes Care Center at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
"This is the first diabetes drug that has shown across-the-board benefits for cardiovascular diseases, and this suggests it plays a role in treating atherosclerosis [hardening of the arteries], which is what leads to heart attacks and strokes," Buse said in a university news release.
One diabetes expert called the study "encouraging."
Victoza "is a relatively new medication, given by daily injection," said Dr. Allison Reiss, who runs the inflammation laboratory at Winthrop-University Hospital in Mineola, N.Y.
Still, the long-term effectiveness of the drug is unknown, Reiss added. "It will be important to follow these patients over the next few years to see whether [Victoza] benefits continue and to investigate how it is working," she said.
The researchers explained that Victoza is from a newer class of diabetes drugs known as GLP-1 agonists. These medications work in the pancreas to cut the production of an anti-insulin hormone called glucagon. The drugs boost insulin production and help control blood sugar levels.
As a secondary mechanism, Victoza also works on the brain to help lower appetite and boost feelings of "fullness" when eating, Buse's team explained.
Reiss noted that because of this activity, Victoza can help spur weight loss -- and that might be the prime factor driving the improvements in heart health.
Dr. Gerald Bernstein coordinates the Friedman Diabetes Program at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. He said that Victoza -- and other drugs in its class -- are being increasingly used, so "decreased cardiovascular risk is an important finding."

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Liraglutide drug makes highly desirable foods less appealing to people

In continuation of my update on Liraglutide

Understanding the motivations that drive humans to eat is an important consideration in the development of weight loss therapies. Now a study led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) helps explain how the diabetes and weight loss drug liraglutide acts on brain receptors to make enticing foods seems less desirable. The findings were recently presented at ENDO 2016, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, and will appear in the May issue of the journal Diabetologia.

"We know that everything that controls our body weight and metabolism is integrated by the brain," said senior author Christos S. Mantzoros, MD, Director of the Human Nutrition Unit in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at BIDMC and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. "This includes both internal stimuli such as hormones and stress, and external stimuli, such as the smell and appearance of enticing foods."

The Mantzoros laboratory has been studying the differences in the brain activity of individuals who are overweight and individuals of normal weight when they are exposed to desirable foods. These differences are quantified through computer-based neurocognitive testing, as well as imaging tests using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to observe alterations in the activity of specific brain areas.

In this new work, the researchers examined the glucagon-like peptide (GLP) hormone, which is secreted by the gastrointestinal tract to regulate metabolism. They also examined the drug liraglutide, which is an analog, or mimicker, of the GLP hormone.

Liraglutide prolongs the action of GLP-1 receptors (protein molecules that respond to the GLP hormone's signal) and is known to work through the digestive tract and the pancreas. Previous animal studies had shown that GLP-1 may also act on the brain, but this had not been confirmed in humans.


Liraglutide drug makes highly desirable foods less appealing to people: Understanding the motivations that drive humans to eat is an important consideration in the development of weight loss therapies. Now a study led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center helps explain how the diabetes and weight loss drug liraglutide acts on brain receptors to make enticing foods seems less desirable.

Saturday, April 14, 2012

Victoza Label Updated to Include Data Showing Superior Efficacy When Compared to Januvia

 In continuation of my update on Liraglutide

Victoza Label Updated to Include Data Showing Superior Efficacy When Compared to Januvia:  Novo Nordisk received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to update the product label for Victoza (liraglutide [rDNA origin] injection) to include data showing superior blood...

Thursday, June 16, 2011

Liraglutide as Additional Treatment in Type 1 Diabetes

In continuation of my update on Liraglutide...
 Results of a small, observational study conducted at the University at Buffalo suggest that liraglutide (below structure) , an injectable medication used to treat type 2 diabetes, also helps type 1 diabetics on insulin achieve optimal control of their blood glucose levels.


Monday, February 1, 2010

FDA approves Liraglutide for Type 2 Diabetes, with a warning.....

Liraglutide, marketed under the brand name Victoza, is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that has been developed by Novo Nordisk for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The product was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) on July 3, 2009, Now the same drug has been approved  by the FDA.

The interesting part of this approval lies in the fact that, Liraglutide was reviewed by an FDA advisory panel which expressed serious concerns that the drug may cause thyroid tumors. Whereas based on the studies and consistent with the relevant literature it is obvious that the rodent C-cell tumors induced by dosing of liraglutide were caused by a non-genotoxic, specific receptormediated mechanism to which rodents are particularly sensitive whereas non-human primates and humans are not. Liraglutide improves control of blood glucose.  It reduces meal-related hyperglycaemia (for 12 hours after administration) by increasing insulin secretion, delaying gastric emptying, and suppressing prandial glucagon secretion.

As per the claim by the company, the advantages are:

a) acts in a glucose-dependent manner, and  stimulate insulin secretion only when blood glucose levels are
    higher than normal. Consequently, it shows negligible risk of hypoglycemia;
b) has the potential for inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating regeneration of beta cells;
c) decreases appetite and maintains body weight, as shown in a head-to-head study versus glimepiride;
d) lowers blood triglyceride levels and only mild and transient side effects, mainly gastrointestinal &
e) has a half-life after subcutaneous injection of 11–15 hours and hence once-daily GLP-1 derivative.

But the FDA, warned that the once-daily injection shouldn't be used as an initial (first-line) treatment until additional studies are completed, since the drug may cause thyroid tumors or a rare disease called medullary thyroid cancer. People at risk for this type of cancer shouldn't use the drug, the FDA stressed. Hope the further studies will rule out the possibility of the drug causing thyroid tumors..

For details, one can read the press release....