Showing posts sorted by relevance for query dabrafenib. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query dabrafenib. Sort by date Show all posts

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Kinase Inhibitor Trials Show Melanoma Benefits | News | Drug Discovery and Development Magazine

Findings from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) plc’s Phase 3 clinical study program evaluating single agent therapy with the targeted anti-cancer agents, dabrafenib (below left structure) and trametinib (below right structure), in patients with BRAF V600 mutation positive metastatic melanoma have been released. 
Both the BREAK3 study of dabrafenib (BRAF inhibitor) and the METRIC study of trametinib (MEK inhibitor) demonstrated a statistically significant benefit in the length of time patients with BRAF V600 mutation positive advanced or metastatic melanoma lived without progression of their disease or death (Progression Free Survival or PFS) compared to those receiving chemotherapy. Additionally, patients in the METRIC study who received trametinib lived significantly longer (overall survival or OS) than those who received chemotherapy with dacarbazine. OS data are not yet mature in the BREAK3 trial.

“The results from the clinical studies of dabrafenib and trametinib presented at this meeting represent important progress towards understanding how these investigational agents could benefit patients with advanced and metastatic melanoma. Importantly, trametinib is the first MEK inhibitor to demonstrate clinical benefit in a late phase melanoma trial.” said Dr. Rafael Amado, Head of Oncology R&D for GlaxoSmithKline. “We are planning regulatory submissions for dabrafenib and trametinib as single agent therapies and have recently started a Phase 3 program to further investigate the effect of the combination in this disease.”

Monday, July 17, 2017

Researchers report high response rate with single drug in phase I/II trial of paediatric brain cancer

Dabrafenib.svg

In continuation of my update on Dabrafenib

A high response rate with a single drug in a phase I/II trial of paediatric brain tumour has set the stage for combination therapy with higher response and lower toxicity, researchers reported at the ESMO 2016 Congress in Copenhagen.

"The likelihood of curing a child with a low-grade glioma is very high," said lead author Dr Mark Kieran, Director, Paediatric Medical Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber Boston Children's, Boston, US. "In fact many children don't suffer lifelong from the tumour but rather from the cognitive damage and secondary malignancies caused by radiation therapy."

He continued: "The development of drugs that target the specific causative mutation of the tumour and avoid long-term toxicities may revolutionise the treatment of paediatric brain cancer."

Up to 10% of paediatric low-grade gliomas have the BRAF V600 mutation. Today researchers reported the phase I and phase II trial results of dabrafenib, a selective inhibitor of mutant protein. The study included 32 patients aged one to 16 years with BRAF V600-mutant low-grade glioma, of whom 15 participated in the phase I trial and 17 were in the phase II trial.

The phase I trial, which focused on determining the recommended phase II dose, did not find any significant dose-limiting toxicities. The recommended dose was therefore based on the pharmacokinetic activity of the drug and was set at 4.5 mg/kg/day for patients aged 12 years and older and 5.25 mg/kg/day for patients under the age of 12.

The phase II trial assessed toxicities with dabrafenib, and whether it could stop tumours from growing or cause them to shrink. "Paediatric low-grade gliomas are a little bit unique in that patients can survive their entire life with a tumour that stops growing, unlike other cancers which need to be completely removed," said Kieran.

The objective response rate was 72%, with 23 out of 32 patients responding to the drug. In two patients the tumour disappeared and in 11 patients the tumour shrunk by more than half - of these 13 patients eight are still on the therapy. Thirteen patients had stable disease of at least six months' duration, and 11 of them are still on the therapy.

Regarding adverse events, there were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma, which has been observed in previous trials of dabrafenib in adults with BRAF V600E positive tumours, most of whom have melanoma. One patient had an allergic reaction to the drug. Minor side effects were similar to those seen in adults, including transient fever, upset stomach, fatigue and skin rash.

Studies in adults with BRAF V600E mutations have shown that combining a BRAF inhibitor with a MEK inhibitor reduces toxicity and produces more activity for a longer period of time. The encouraging results with dabrafenib in children have provided the impetus for phase I and II trials with a MEK inhibitor to determine the dose and toxicities, and a trial combining the two drugs is now underway.

Kieran said: "We want to make the response rate with dabrafenib even higher by combining it with a MEK inhibitor since that works in adults. Adding two drugs together normally produces twice as much toxicity. But much of the toxicity from the BRAF drug is inhibited by the MEK drug, so the combination is less toxic than either drug alone, which is unusual."

Kieran concluded: "The finding that dabrafenib can shrink tumours or stop them growing is exciting and has led to trials with a MEK inhibitor and now the combination of drugs. This combined therapy may completely change the way we treat low-grade gliomas in children with this mutation. The caveat is that these targeted personalised drugs are relatively new so we need to make sure that they don't have any long-term developmental toxicities in children."

Commenting on the findings, Professor Michael Weller, chairman, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland, said: "The encouraging thing about this study is that this targeted treatment seems to work. At the moment in neuro-oncology we know almost everything about the molecular make-up of gliomas in adults and in children but we have not really been able to translate all this knowledge into an effective therapeutic agent."

"These findings will have implications for clinical practice because many parents are willing to travel all around the world to get access to a promising treatment," he continued. "We have almost no randomised data for brain tumours in children, at least for gliomas, because the tumours are too rare and the trials are difficult for ethical reasons."

Weller concluded: "We need longer follow up to find out how long the responses last and whether we get long-term survival. And then of course in children we want to know if there is any long-term toxicity."


Saturday, October 31, 2015

2-year advanced melanoma survival benefit with dabrafenib, trametinib combination



http://www.cancernetwork.com/sites/default/files/cn_import/


Updated results from the COMBI-v trial show significantly improved overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) with first-line dabrafenib plus trametinib compared with vemurafenib in patients with advanced melanoma.

The findings of the phase III trial comprising patients with BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma were presented at the European Cancer Congress in Vienna, Austria, by Caroline Robert, from the Institut Gustave Roussy in Paris, France.

A previous interim analysis with a median follow-up of 11 months showed a significant improvement in OS with dabrafenib and trametinib, explained Robert in her presentation, so much so that the trial was terminated early and patients in the vemurafenib group were allowed to crossover.
In this most recent analysis, the 352 patients randomly assigned to receive the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib plus the MEK inhibitor trametinib had a median OS of 25.6 months. This was not only significantly longer than the 18.0 months observed for the 352 participants given the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib, but also the “longest ever reached” in a randomised phase III trial in this patient population, said Robert.

And after a median follow-up of 19 months, the 2-year survival rate was significantly higher for the dabrafenib plus trametinib group than for the vemurafenib group, at 51% versus 38%.

Median PFS was also significantly longer, with corresponding times of 12.6 and 7.3 months, and overall response rate and duration of response were similarly improved in the dual therapy compared with the monotherapy arm, at 66% versus 53% and 13.8 versus 8.5 months, respectively.

The incidence of all-grade adverse events continued to be high during the additional follow-up period, with pyrexia (55%) most common in the combination group and arthralgia (52%) in the vemurafenib group, but Robert said this was not surprising.

Saturday, June 9, 2018

FDA Approves Tafinlar + Mekinist for the Treatment of BRAF-Positive Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

In continuation of my update on Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib)

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib), administered together, for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic), and has a type of abnormal gene, BRAF V600E (BRAF V600E mutation-positive).

Dabrafenib.svg  dabrafenib     Trametinib.svg trametinib

“This is the first FDA-approved treatment for patients with this aggressive form of thyroid cancer, and the third cancer with this specific gene mutation that this drug combination has been approved to treat,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval demonstrates that targeting the same molecular pathway in diverse diseases is an effective way to expedite the development of treatments that may help more patients.”
Thyroid cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare, aggressive type of thyroid cancer. The National Institutes of Health estimates there will be 53,990 new cases of thyroid cancer and an estimated 2,060 deaths from the disease in the United States in 2018. Anaplastic thyroid cancer accounts for about 1 to 2 percent of all thyroid cancers.
Both Tafinlar and Mekinist are also approved for use, alone or in combination, to treat BRAF V600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. Additionally, Tafinlar and Mekinist are approved for use, in combination, to treat BRAF V600E mutation-positive, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
The efficacy of Tafinlar and Mekinist in treating ATC was shown in an open-label clinical trial of patients with rare cancers with the BRAF V600E mutation. Data from trials in BRAF V600E mutation-positive, metastatic melanoma or lung cancer and results in other BRAF V600E mutation-positive rare cancers provided confidence in the results seen in patients with ATC. The trial measured the percent of patients with a complete or partial reduction in tumor size (overall response rate). Of 23 evaluable patients, 57 percent experienced a partial response and 4 percent experienced a complete response; in nine (64 percent) of the 14 patients with responses, there were no significant tumor growths for six months or longer.
The side effects of Tafinlar and Mekinist in patients with ATC are consistent with those seen in other cancers when the two drugs are used together. Common side effects include fever (pyrexia), rash, chills, headache, joint pain (arthralgia), cough, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia (muscle pain), dry skin, decreased appetite, edema, hemorrhage, high blood pressure (hypertension) and difficulty breathing (dyspnea).
Severe side effects of Tafinlar include the development of new cancers, growth of tumors in patients with BRAF wild-type tumors, serious bleeding problems, heart problems, severe eye problems, fever that may be severe, serious skin reactions, high blood sugar or worsening diabetes, and serious anemia.
Severe side effects of Mekinist include the development of new cancers; serious bleeding problems; inflammation of intestines and perforation of the intestines; blood clots in the arms, legs or lungs; heart problems; severe eye problems; lung or breathing problems; fever that may be severe; serious skin reactions; and high blood sugar or worsening diabetes.
Both Tafinlar and Mekinist can cause harm to a developing fetus; women should be advised of the potential risk to the fetus and to use effective contraception.
The FDA granted Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapy designation for this indication. Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases, was also granted for this indication.

Thursday, May 31, 2018

FDA grants approval for two drugs administered together to treat aggressive form of thyroid cancer


 In continuation of my update on dabrafenibtrametinib

Dabrafenib.svg     dabrafenib                Trametinib.svg trametinib

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib), administered together, for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic), and has a type of abnormal gene, BRAF V600E (BRAF V600E mutation-positive).
"This is the first FDA-approved treatment for patients with this aggressive form of thyroid cancer, and the third cancer with this specific gene mutation that this drug combination has been approved to treat," said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA's Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "This approval demonstrates that targeting the same molecular pathway in diverse diseases is an effective way to expedite the development of treatments that may help more patients."
Thyroid cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare, aggressive type of thyroid cancer. The National Institutes of Health estimates there will be 53,990 new cases of thyroid cancer and an estimated 2,060 deaths from the disease in the United States in 2018. Anaplastic thyroid cancer accounts for about 1 to 2 percent of all thyroid cancers.
Both Tafinlar and Mekinist are also approved for use, alone or in combination, to treat BRAF V600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. Additionally, Tafinlar and Mekinist are approved for use, in combination, to treat BRAF V600E mutation-positive, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
The efficacy of Tafinlar and Mekinist in treating ATC was shown in an open-label clinical trial of patients with rare cancers with the BRAF V600E mutation. Data from trials in BRAF V600E mutation-positive, metastatic melanoma or lung cancer and results in other BRAF V600E mutation-positive rare cancers provided confidence in the results seen in patients with ATC. The trial measured the percent of patients with a complete or partial reduction in tumor size (overall response rate). Of 23 evaluable patients, 57 percent experienced a partial response and 4 percent experienced a complete response; in nine (64 percent) of the 14 patients with responses, there were no significant tumor growths for six months or longer.
The side effects of Tafinlar and Mekinist in patients with ATC are consistent with those seen in other cancers when the two drugs are used together. Common side effects include fever (pyrexia), rash, chills, headache, joint pain (arthralgia), cough, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia (muscle pain), dry skin, decreased appetite, edema, hemorrhage, high blood pressure (hypertension) and difficulty breathing (dyspnea).
Severe side effects of Tafinlar include the development of new cancers, growth of tumors in patients with BRAF wild-type tumors, serious bleeding problems, heart problems, severe eye problems, fever that may be severe, serious skin reactions, high blood sugar or worsening diabetes, and serious anemia.
Severe side effects of Mekinist include the development of new cancers; serious bleeding problems; inflammation of intestines and perforation of the intestines; blood clots in the arms, legs or lungs; heart problems; severe eye problems; lung or breathing problems; fever that may be severe; serious skin reactions; and high blood sugar or worsening diabetes.
Both Tafinlar and Mekinist can cause harm to a developing fetus; women should be advised of the potential risk to the fetus and to use effective contraception.
The FDA granted Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapy designation for this indication. Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases, was also granted for this indication.

Monday, June 10, 2013

FDA Approves Tafinlar (dabrafenib) for Advanced Melanoma

In conyinaution of my update on Dabrafenib


 
GlaxoSmithKline plc announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Tafinlar (dabrafenib). Tafinlar is indicated as a single-agent oral treatment for unresectable melanoma (melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery) or metastatic melanoma (melanoma which has spread to other parts of the body) in adult patients with BRAF V600E mutation. Tafinlar is not indicated for the treatment of patients with wild-type BRAF melanoma. The mutation must be detected by an FDA-approved test, such as the companion diagnostic assay from bioMérieux S.A., THxID™-BRAF.

Monday, June 1, 2015

New triple combination therapy shows promise in controlling advanced melanoma

Results of a new study by UCLA researchers has found that a groundbreaking new triple combination therapy shows promising signs of more effectively controlling advanced melanoma than previous BRAF + MEK inhibitor or BRAF inhibitor + immunotherapy combos alone, and with increased immune response and fewer side effects.

An estimated 70,000 new cases of metastatic melanoma are diagnosed each year in the United States, and of those 8,000 will die of the disease. About 50 percent of these men and women (or 35,000 a year) have a mutated protein called a BRAF mutation, which in most cases allows melanoma to eventually build up a resistance to many drug therapies.

In the new study led by UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center member Dr. Antoni Ribas and colleague Dr. Siwen Hu-Lieskovan, UCLA scientists combined targeted therapies utilizing a BRAF inhibitor (dabrafenib) and MEK inhibitor (trametinib) Trametinib.svg(trametinib) Dabrafenib.svg (dabrafenib)



with immunotherapy. The three together are shown to be more effective treatments by sensitizing the patients' own immune system to enhance immunotherapy, and reduce the probability of the melanoma eventually developing resistance.

Friday, May 18, 2018

Novartis Receives FDA Approval of Tafinlar + Mekinist for Adjuvant Treatment of BRAF V600-Mutant Melanoma

Novartis announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Tafinlar® (dabrafenib) in combination with Mekinist® (trametinib) for the adjuvant treatment of patients with melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations, as detected by an FDA-approved test, and involvement of lymph node(s), following complete resection. The FDA granted the combination Breakthrough Therapy Designation for this indication in October 2017 and Priority Review in December 2017.

Dabrafenib.png

"Since the initial approval of Tafinlar and Mekinist in metastatic melanoma in 2013, the combination has become an important therapy for many patients carrying a BRAF mutation in both melanoma and lung cancers," said Liz Barrett, CEO, Novartis Oncology. "Today's FDA approval is an important milestone for patients who previously had limited treatment options in the adjuvant setting, and reflects our commitment to the ongoing development of this breakthrough treatment."
The melanoma approval is based on results from COMBI-AD, a Phase III study of 870 patients with Stage III BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive melanoma treated with Tafinlar + Mekinist after complete surgical resection[1]. Patients received the Tafinlar (150 mg BID) + Mekinist (2 mg QD) combination (n = 438) or matching placebos (n = 432)[1]. After a median follow-up of 2.8 years, the primary endpoint of relapse-free survival (RFS) was met. Treatment with the combination therapy significantly reduced the risk of disease recurrence or death by 53% as compared to placebo (HR: 0.47 [95% CI: 0.39-0.58]; p<0.0001; median not reached with combination therapy vs. 16.6 months with placebo)[1]. The RFS benefit among the combination arm was observed across all patient subgroups, including disease sub-stage[1]. Improvements were also observed in key secondary endpoints including overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and freedom from relapse (FFR)[1]. These results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine, October 2017[1].
"The purpose of adjuvant therapy is to improve recurrence-free and overall survival in our patients with melanoma. Adjuvant therapy options are crucial today because more than half of patients have a recurrence after surgery," said John M. Kirkwood, M.D., Usher Professor of Medicine, Director of Melanoma and Skin Cancer, University of Pittsburgh. "We developed the first adjuvant therapy approved by the FDA 22 years ago, and now we have the first effective oral targeted therapy combination that prevents relapse among patients with BRAF-mutated melanoma that has spread to lymph nodes."
"Prevention and early detection are important safeguards from melanoma, but that's only half the picture. Melanoma is an aggressive cancer that can recur, particularly when it shows certain warning signs like increased depth, ulceration, or spread to the lymph nodes," said Sancy Leachman, M.D., Ph.D., Chair of the Department of Dermatology at OHSU School of Medicine. "With proven treatment options for these patients, it is important for dermatologists to assure that appropriate patients are offered adjuvant treatment options - a 'watch and wait' approach is no longer the standard of care. Collaborating with a multidisciplinary care team of surgeons, pathologists and oncologists, and determining the right treatment based on the patient's individual circumstances and mutational status is crucial to our patients' care plans."


Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Mekinist Plus Tafinlar Approved for Late-Stage Melanoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Friday approved Mekinist for use with another drug, Tafinlar, to treat advanced melanoma that is spreading or cannot be removed by surgery.
Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer, accounting for an estimated 9,480 American deaths last year, the FDA said Friday in a news release. Mekinist (trametinib) is newly approved to be used in combination with Tafinlar (dabrafenib). Both drugs were first sanctioned in May 2013 to be used by themselves to battle advanced melanoma, the agency said.
The combination therapy is newly approved for people who have certain mutations in the BRAF V600E and V600K genes, the FDA said. About half of melanoma cases have the mutated genes.
The combination therapy was clinically evaluated in 162 people. Of those treated, 78 percent had their cancer shrink or disappear for an average of 10.5 months, the agency said.

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Combinatory therapy may be effective in suppressing drug resistance in treatment of melanoma

"About 50 percent of melanomas are driven by mutations in the BRAF gene, and about 60-80 percent of these melanomas initially respond to BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib, but most develop resistance within seven to eight months," said Dr. Lo. "Our goal is to study comprehensively how this cancer escapes from BRAF inhibitors, so we can design new treatment approaches to overcome this resistance.

"It is very exciting to see work funded under a Stand Up To Cancer Innovative Research Grant (IRG) yield these important results," stated Sherry Lansing, co-founder & member of the SU2C Council of Founders and Advisors. "We created the IRG program to enable some of the best and brightest young researchers across disciplines to think out of the box and attempt to make major breakthroughs in their field with bold research projects." The SU2C IRG program is one of two initial funding models created by SU2C to focus on groundbreaking translational research aimed at getting new therapies to patients quickly. IRG grants support work that incorporates new ideas and new approaches to solve critical problems in cancer research. Dr. Lo's grant was one of the initial 13 IRG grants awarded in December 2009. Thirteen additional IRG grants were awarded in April 2011. To date, SU2C has funded $19.42 million for IRG research.

"There are several types of resistance, and one of these studies focused on early resistance, because most melanomas respond to BRAF inhibitors partially, leaving behind tumors subject to further evolutionary selection and development of late resistance," said Lo. "We found that suppressing the BRAF-regulated MAPK signaling quickly led to an increase in PI3K-AKT pathway signaling [causing early resistance] in many but not all melanomas. In those that do not display this early adaptive response, certain tumor subclones with the 'right' genetic variants in the PI3K-PTEN-AKT pathway would then have selective growth advantage during BRAF inhibitor therapy and eventually contribute to acquired [late] resistance," he explained.

Lo and colleagues studied melanoma tumors from patients collected before and early during treatment with BRAF inhibitors, and found that there was an increase in the amount of the activated form of a protein called AKT, early on after the start of treatment. They further confirmed these findings using melanoma cells cultured in the laboratory. This increase in activated AKT was associated with various inhibitors that block MAPK signaling at different points along the pathway, such as BRAF and MEK inhibitors.

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Phase I clinical trial shows drug shrinks melanoma brain metastases

The drug dabrafenib (see structure), which targets the Val600 BRAF mutation that is active in half of melanoma cases, also cut the size of tumors in 25 of 36 patients with late-stage melanoma that had not spread to the brain. The drug also showed activity in other cancer types with the BRAF mutation.

"Nine out of 10 responses among patients with brain metastases is really exciting. No other systemic therapy has ever demonstrated this much activity against melanoma brain metastases," said study co-lead author Gerald Falchook, M.D., assistant professor in the Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.


Phase I clinical trial shows drug shrinks melanoma brain metastases