Showing posts sorted by relevance for query Nilotinib. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query Nilotinib. Sort by date Show all posts

Thursday, August 11, 2016

Frontline nilotinib supported for newly diagnosed CP-CML



Nilotinib2DACS.svg



Long-term results from the ENESTnd trial indicate a favourable risk-benefit profile for frontline use of nilotinib in patients within 6 months of chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukaemia (CP-CML) diagnosis.

"Throughout the study, nilotinib has demonstrated several benefits over imatinib in surrogate endpoints of therapeutic efficacy, such as higher rates of response and lower rates of disease progression, death due to advanced CML and treatment-emergent BCR-ABL mutations", the researchers report in Leukemia.

"The risk of AEs [adverse events] (regardless of AE type) appears to be similar with nilotinib and imatinib; however, each TKI [tyrosine kinase inhibitor] is associated with different types of AEs, including a higher risk of CVEs [cardiovascular events] with nilotinib vs imatinib."

By 5 years, 77.0% of the 282 patients randomly assigned to receive nilotinib 300 mg twice daily and 77.2% of the 281 using nilotinib 400 mg twice daily achieved a major molecular response (BCR-ABL ≤0.1% on the International Scale [BCR-ABLIS]) compared with 60.4% of the 283 patients given imatinib 400 mg once daily.

Deep molecular responses by 5 years were also more common with nilotinib 300 mg and 400 mg than with imatinib, with rates of MR4 (BCR-ABLIS ≤0.01%) of 65.6%, 63.0% and 41.7%, respectively. The corresponding rates for MR4.5 (BCR-ABLIS ≤0.0032%) were 53.5%, 52.3% and 31.4%.

And estimated 5-year progression-free survival was 92.2%, 95.8% and 91.0% for the nilotinib 300 mg and 400 mg groups and the imatinib group, respectively. Overall survival at 5 years was estimated to be 93.7%, 96.2% and 91.7%, respectively.

Monday, April 17, 2017

Leukemia drug increases brain dopamine, lowers toxic proteins linked to Parkinson's or dementia

My updates on  nilotinib


Nilotinib2DACS.svg

A small phase I study provides molecular evidence that an FDA-approved drug for leukemia significantly increased brain dopamine and reduced toxic proteins linked to disease progression in patients with Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. Dopamine is the brain chemical (neurotransmitter) lost as a result of death of dopamine-producing neurons in these neurodegenerative diseases.

Researchers from Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC), say the findings, described in the Journal of Parkinson's Disease, support improved clinical outcomes observed and first reported at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in October 2015.

The study tested nilotinib taken daily for six months. A much smaller dose of nilotinib (150 or 300 mg once daily) was used compared to the dose for chronic myelogenous leukemia (300-400 mg twice daily). Twelve patients were enrolled in the clinical trial — one patient withdrew due to an adverse event. Researchers say the drug appears to be safe and well tolerated in the remaining 11 participants who completed the study.

In addition to safety, the researchers also examined biological markers in the blood and cerebral spinal fluid as well as cognitive, motor and non-motor improvement. They found significant signs that nilotinib may provide benefit for patients with these neurodegenerative diseases.

"These results need to be viewed with caution and further validated in larger placebo controlled trials, because this study was small, the patients were very different from each other, and there was no placebo," says the study's senior investigator, Charbel Moussa, MD, PhD, scientific and clinical research director of the GUMC Translational Neurotherpeutics Program.
Among the biomarker findings were that:

•The level of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid — an indicator that dopamine is being produced — steadily doubled, even with the loss of most dopamine neurons. Most study participants were able to stop using, or reduce their use of, dopamine replacement therapies;



•The level of the Parkinson's related oxidative stress marker DJ-1 — an indicator that dopamine-producing neurons are dying — was reduced more than 50 percent after niltonib treatment; and
•The levels of cell death markers (NSE, S100B and tau) were significantly reduced in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggesting reduced neuronal cell death.

In addition, Moussa adds that it appears nilotinib attenuated the loss of CSF alpha-synuclein, a toxic protein that accumulates within neurons, resulting in reduced CSF levels in both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.

The researchers also said that all 11 patients who tolerated the drug reported meaningful clinical improvements. All patients were at mid-advanced stages of Parkinsonism and they all had mild to severe cognitive impairment.

"Patients progressively improved in motor and cognitive functions as long as they were on the drug — despite the decreased use of dopamine replacement therapies in those participants with Parkinson's and dementia with Lewy bodies," says the study's lead author, Fernando Pagan, MD, medical director of the GUMC Translational Neurotherpeutics Program and director of the Movement Disorders Program at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital.

But three months after withdrawal of the drug, participants returned to the same reduced cognitive and motor state they had before the study began, Pagan adds.

Some serious side effects were reported including one patient who withdrew at week four of treatment due to heart attack and three incidents of urinary tract infection or pneumonia. The researchers say these incidents are not uncommon in this patient population, and additional studies are needed to determine if the adverse events are related to use of nilotinib.



"Long term safety of nilotinib is a priority, so it is important that further studies be conducted to determine the safest and most effective dose in Parkinson's, says Pagan.

The researchers designed the clinical trial to translate several notable observations in the laboratory. The preclinical studies, led by Moussa, showed that nilotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, effectively penetrates the blood-brain barrier and destroys toxic proteins that build up in Parkinson's disease and dementia by turning on the "garbage disposal machinery" inside neurons.

Their published studies also showed nilotinib increases the levels of the dopamine neurotransmitter — the chemical lost as a result of neuronal destruction due to toxic protein accumulation — and improves motor and cognitive outcomes in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease animal models.

"Our hope is to clarify the benefits of nilotinib to patients in a much larger and well controlled study. This was a very promising start," Moussa says. "If these data hold out in further studies, nilotinib would be the most important treatment for Parkinsonism since the discovery of Levodopa almost 50 years ago."

He adds, "Additionally, if we can validate nilotinib effects on cognition in upcoming larger and placebo controlled trials, this drug could become one of the first treatments for dementia with Lewy bodies, which has no cure, and possibly other dementias."

Two randomized, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trials are planned for summer/fall in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The Translational Neurotherpeutics Program is also planning a small trial in ALS (Lou Gherig's disease).

According to Novartis, the cost (as of Oct. 2015) of nilotinib for the treatment of CML was about $10,360 a month for 800 mg daily. The dose used in this study was lower — 150 and 300 mg daily.



Thursday, December 17, 2009

Nilotinib more efficiant over Imatinib for (Ph+ CML)....

Nilotinib (see structure) :

Nilotinib, in the form of the hydrochloride monohydrate salt, is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, approved as Tasigna in USA and the EU for drug - resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (June 2006), resistant to treatment with imatinib (Gleevec), another tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently used as a first-line treatment.

In a recently held large clinical trial, nilotinib demonstrated greater efficacy over the current gold standard treatment, imatinib, in adult patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (Ph+ CML) in the chronic phase.

As per the claim by the researchers, in the first head-to-head study of these two oral treatments as initial therapy for this life-threatening leukaemia, nilotinib demonstrated statistically significant improvement over imatinib in key measures of effectiveness used in the trial. The trial showed that at 12 months, significantly fewer patients on nilotinib 300mg twice-daily progressed from the initial chronic phase of the disease to the later accelerated or blast crisis phases than those on imatinib 400mg once-daily. This demonstrates that nilotinib provided significantly better control of the disease compared to imatinib.

95% of patients with CML have an abnormality known as the Philadelphia chromosome. This chromosome produces a type of protein called Bcr-Abl, which is responsible for the overproduction of the cancerous white blood cells that are the main feature in Ph+ CML. Nilotinib is a potent and selective inhibitor of the Bcr-Abl protein, thereby inhibiting the production of these cancerous cells.

Ref : http://www.novartis.com/newsroom/media-releases/en/2009/1359764.shtml

Sunday, February 2, 2014

Biotechdaily - Nilotinib Enhances Toxic Protein Removal from Parkinson's Disease Neurons

In continuation of my update on Nilotinib

The anticancer drug nilotinib induces clearance of the toxic protein alpha-synuclein from   neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease and ameliorates symptoms of the disease.

Investigators at Georgetown University Medical Center (Washington DC, USA) worked with a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. They reported in the May 10, 2013, online edition of the journal Human Molecular Genetics that lentiviral transfection of the gene encoding alpha-synuclein into the mouse SN lead to activation (phosphorylation) of the tyrosine kinase Abl and that lentiviral transfection of the gene encoding Abl increased alpha-synuclein levels, which exacerbated the disease. Administration of the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor nilotinib decreased Abl activity and increased autophagic clearance of alpha-synuclein into lysosomes in transgenic and lentiviral gene-transfer models.


The drug nilotinib was approved as Tasigna in the USA and the EU for drug-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In 2006, a Phase I clinical trial found that nilotinib had a relatively favorable safety profile and showed activity in cases of CML resistant to treatment with imatinib (Gleevec [USA]/ Glivec [Europe, Australia, and Latin America]), another tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently used as a first-line treatment. In that study, 92% of patients (already resistant or unresponsive to imatinib) achieved a normal white blood cell counts after five months of treatment.



In the current study, nilotinib, which enters the brain within [US] Food and Drug Administration approved doses, led to autophagic degradation of alpha-synuclein, protection of SN neurons and improvement of motor performance in the Parkinson’s disease mice.

 
"No one has tried anything like this before," said senior author Dr. Charbel E-H Moussa, assistant professor of neuroscience at the Georgetown University Medical Center. "This drug, in very low doses, turns on the garbage disposal machinery inside neurons to clear toxic proteins from the cell. By clearing intracellular proteins, the drug prevents their accumulation in pathological inclusions called Lewy bodies and/or tangles, and also prevents amyloid secretion into the extracellular space between neurons, so proteins do not form toxic clumps or plaques in the brain."

"The doses used to treat CML are high enough that the drug pushes cells to chew up their own internal organelles, causing self-cannibalization and cell death," said Dr. Moussa. "We reasoned that small doses—for these mice, an equivalent to 1% of the dose used in humans—would turn on just enough autophagy in neurons that the cells would clear malfunctioning proteins, and nothing else. We successfully tested this for several diseases models that have an accumulation of intracellular protein. It gets rid of alpha-synuclein and tau in a number of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease as well as Lewy body dementia."

Thursday, June 21, 2018

Novartis Drug Tasigna Approved by FDA to Treat Children with Rare Form of Leukemia



Nilotinib2DACS.svg

In continuation of my update on Nilotinib


Novartis announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the indication for Tasigna (nilotinib) to include treatment of first- and second-line pediatric patients one year of age or older with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (Ph+ CML-CP)

In the United States, Tasigna is now indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients one year of age or older with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML-CP. Tasigna is also indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients one year of age or older with Ph+ CML-CP resistant or intolerant to prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, as well as adult patients with Ph+ CML in chronic phase and accelerated phase, resistant or intolerant to prior therapy that included imatinib.
This approval is the latest in a series of regulatory milestones that broadens the understanding and clinical use of Tasigna.
CML is a type of blood cancer where the body produces malignant white blood cells. Almost all patients with CML have an abnormality known as the "Philadelphia chromosome," which produces a protein called BCR-ABL. This protein aids the proliferation of malignant white blood cells in affected patients. Worldwide, CML accounts for approximately 3% of newly diagnosed childhood leukemia[1].
"Novartis' commitment to people living with CML is reinforced by today's FDA approval of Tasigna in children," said Liz Barrett, CEO, Novartis Oncology. "This expanded use, along with the other recent global regulatory Tasigna milestones, underscores our dedication to reimagining medicine and addressing the needs for people with CML, including children with this cancer."
The new indications, granted under the FDA's Priority Review designation, are based on two studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of nilotinib in pediatric patients (two years to less than 18 years of age) with Ph+ CML-CP. A total of 69 Ph+ CML-CP pediatric patients, either newly diagnosed (first-line) or who were resistant or intolerant to prior TKI therapy (second-line), received nilotinib[2]. In newly diagnosed pediatric patients, the major molecular response (MMR; BCR ABL/ABL <=0.1% International Scale [IS]) rate was 60.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.7, 78.9) at 12 cycles, with 15 patients achieving MMR[2]. The cumulative MMR rate among newly diagnosed pediatric patients was 64.0% by cycle 12, and the median time to first MMR was 5.6 months (range: 2.7 to 16.6). In pediatric patients with resistance or intolerance to prior TKI therapy, the MMR rate was 40.9% (95% CI: 26.3, 56.8) at 12 cycles, with 18 patients being in MMR[2]. The cumulative MMR rate among pediatric patients with resistance or intolerance was 47.7% by cycle 12, and the median time to first MMR was 2.8 months (range: 0.0 to 11.3)[2].
Adverse reactions observed in these pediatric studies were generally consistent with those observed in adults, except for laboratory abnormalities of hyperbilirubinemia (Grade 3/4: 13%)-a condition where there is too much bilirubin in the blood-and transaminase elevation (AST Grade 3/4: 1%, ALT Grade 3/4: 9%), which were reported at a higher frequency than in adult patients. One resistant or intolerant pediatric CML patient progressed to advance phase/blast crisis (AP/BC) after about 10 months on treatment.

Wednesday, May 15, 2013

Cancer drug prevents build-up of toxic brain protein

In continuation of my update on Nilotinib

We know that, Nilotinib (AMN107, trade name Tasigna), in the form of the hydrochloride monohydrate salt, is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia

Now, researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center have used tiny doses of a leukemia drug nilotinib,  to halt accumulation of toxic proteins linked to Parkinson's disease in the brains of mice. This finding provides the basis to plan a clinical trial in humans to study the effects.....More...


Cancer drug prevents build-up of toxic brain protein

Ref : http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/05/09/hmg.ddt192

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Novartis announces FDA approval of its first and only CML therapy with TFR data in product label

In continuation of my update on nilotinib
Nilotinib2DACS.svg
Novartis announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the inclusion of Treatment-free Remission (TFR) data in the Tasigna® (nilotinib) US product label. Tasigna is now the first and only BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to include data about attempting treatment discontinuation in eligible adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (Ph+ CML-CP) after achieving sustained deep molecular response of MR4.5 (BCR-ABL1 International Scale [IS] <= 0.0032%) in its FDA-approved prescribing information. TFR is the ability to maintain a sustained molecular response* after stopping TKI therapy in patients with Ph+ CML-CP. TFR requires scheduled monitoring of BCR-ABL1 levels to identify possible loss of molecular response.
"It has long been our ambition at Novartis to make it possible for some people with CML to discontinue therapy," said Bruno Strigini, CEO, Novartis Oncology. "We are proud that Tasigna is now the first and only TKI with TFR data in its labeling in the US and several countries around the globe. This achievement would not have been possible without the partnership of patients around the world who participated in our groundbreaking TFR trials, helping Novartis to once again reimagine what is possible for people living with CML."
With this label update, Tasigna is the only TKI that provides defined, approved criteria to attempt and monitor TFR. This approval follows a priority review for a supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for Tasigna seeking the addition of TFR information and is based on safety and efficacy results from the 96-week analyses of two open label trials, ENESTfreedom and ENESTop. These trials evaluated the potential to maintain MMR (BCR-ABL1 <= 0.1%) after stopping Tasigna therapy among eligible adult patients with Ph+ CML-CP. Patients in the trials had achieved a sustained MR4.5 with Tasigna in both the first-line setting or after switching from Glivec® (imatinib). The trials demonstrated that almost half of the Ph+ CML-CP patients who discontinued Tasigna remained in TFR approximately two years after stopping treatment[1]. Among patients who did lose molecular response during the TFR phase of the trials, nearly all regained MMR when Tasigna therapy was promptly reinitiated[1]. The safety data are consistent with previously published studies and the known safety profile of Tasigna.
The TFR data in the Tasigna label approved by the FDA included the use of the MolecularMD MRDxTM BCR-ABL test, a FDA-authorized companion diagnostic validated to measure BCR-ABL transcript levels down to MR4.5. Discontinuation of Tasigna should only be attempted under the close supervision of a physician. Frequently scheduled patient monitoring after Tasigna discontinuation is required so that possible loss of MMR and MR4.0 (BCR-ABL1 IS <= 0.01%) is quickly identified and treatment re-initiation is started promptly.
Ref : https://www.novartis.com/news/media-releases/novartis-drug-tasignar-approved-fda-first-and-only-cml-therapy-treatment-free-remission-data-its-label

Friday, March 27, 2015

PF-114 shows promise in therapy-resistant CML, Ph-positive ALL






PF-114, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is active against native and mutated forms of the BCR–ABL oncogene in Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive leukaemias, according to preclinical cellular and in vivo results published in Leukemia.

Martin Ruthardt, from Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany, and colleagues found that PF-114 was more selective than the second-generation TKIs dasatinib and nilotinib as well as the third-generation TKI ponatinib, which they speculate could reduce the potential for adverse effects.

At a 100 nM concentration, equivalent to an active plasma concentration, PF-114 inhibited at least 90% activity of 11 kinases compared with 47 and 36 kinases suppressed by ponatinib and dasatinib, respectively. Nilotinib blocked only four kinases at this concentration, but extrapolating the data to its clinically relevant concentration of 4 µM resulted in the number of inhibited kinases increasing to 21.

In cell-free assays, PF-114 inhibited not only native ABL kinase but also versions of the enzyme harbouring various clinically relevant mutations, including T315I. The agent also suppressed the proliferation of Ph-positive cell lines derived from patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) or acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL).

Additionally, PF-114 was effective against patient-derived long-term cultures, including those responsive and resistant to TKIs as well as one with nonmutational TKI-resistance.

Treatment with PF-114 significantly increased the median survival of mice transplanted with cells expressing the native or T315I mutant form of p185BCR–ABL, inducing a CML-like disease, compared with untreated mice, from 28 days to 39 days and 68 to 132 days, respectively.

Ref : http://www.nature.com/leu/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/leu2014326a.html

Friday, February 20, 2015

Researchers identify 53 existing drugs that may block Ebola virus from entering human cells



Researchers found 53 existing drugs that may keep the Ebola virus from entering human cells, a key step in the process of infection, according to a study led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and published today in the Nature Press journal Emerging Microbes and Infections.

Among the better known drug types shown to hinder infection by an Ebola virus model: several cancer drugs, antihistamines and antibiotics. Among the most effective at keeping the virus out of human cells were microtubule inhibitors used to treat cancer.

"In light of the historic and devastating outbreak of Ebola virus disease, there is an urgent need to rapidly develop useful treatments against Ebola infection, and our study results argue that repurposing existing drugs may be among the fastest ways to achieve this," said lead author Adolfo García-Sastre, PhD, Director of the Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute within the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. "Many of the compounds identified in this study promise to become lead compounds in near-future drug development efforts studies targeting this virus," said Dr. García-Sastre, also the Fishberg Chair and Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) within the School.

A few are listed below...


Ref : http://www.nature.com/emi/journal/v3/n12/full/emi201488a.html

Nocodazole (IC50=0.4 µM), Toremifene (0.55 µM), Tamoxifen (0.76 µM), Raloxifene 1.84 (1.53 µM), Cepharanthine (1.53 µM), Clomiphene (1.72 µM), Dronedarone (2.2 µM), Amodiaquine (4.43 µM), Imipramine (13.7 µM), Chloroquine (15.3 µM), and Nilotinib (15.3 µM).




Wednesday, June 2, 2010

Bafetinib demonstrates significant inhibition of glioblastoma multiforme cell lines (preclinical trials)..

The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)  changed  dramatically with the emergence of the ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib mesilate. However, primary and secondary imatinib resistance has been frequently reported, particularly in patients with advanced-stage disease. To override imatinib resistance, three second-generation ABL TKIs, i.e., dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutinib, were developed. Bafetinib (see structure source : Chemblink :INNO-406, NS-187) is a dual ABL/Lyn inhibitor developed by the team at Kyoto University Hospital in collaboration with Nippon Shinyaku. 

Bafetinib was 25-55 times more potent than imatinib in blocking BCR/ABL autophosphorylation, while otherwise retaining specificity for ABL and Lyn. Bafetinib had antiproliferative effects against cells bearing wild-type or most mutated BCR/ABL proteins, except T315I, and also inhibited BCR/ABL-positive leukemic cell growth in the central nervous system. A phase I study on bafetinib was completed and the agent was well tolerated and demonstrated clinical activity across a range of doses. Responses occurred even in the setting of a heavily pretreated population, thus making bafetinib a viable option for CML therapy.

Recently  CytRx Corporation, announced that its drug candidate bafetinib (formerly known as INNO-406) demonstrated statistically significant inhibition of glioblastoma multiforme cell lines in a preclinical trial. The company believe that bafetinib could be efficacious in several hematological cancers and  it is  preparing to begin evaluating bafetinib in a Phase 2 proof-of-concept clinical trial in high-risk B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) this quarter, as well as a Phase 2 clinical trial in advanced prostate cancer next quarter.... 

Ref : http://www.cytrx.com/inno_406.html

Monday, June 8, 2015

Fourth-line bosutinib ‘appropriate’ after prior CML treatment failure, intolerance



Bosutinib2DACS.svg


In continuation of my update on bosutinib



A Spanish study suggests that bosutinib can help improve or maintain response in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) after treatment failure of three previous tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI).
Researcher Juan Luís Steegmann (Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain) and colleagues analysed medical records of 30 chronic phase CML patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive disease given bosutinib under the Spanish Compassionate Use programme after discontinuing imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib as a result of resistance or intolerance.
Of the 15 patients without a complete cytogenetic response at baseline, defined as after TKI use but before bosutinib initiation, two (13.3%) achieved it following bosutinib treatment.


Fourth-line bosutinib ‘appropriate’ after prior CML treatment failure, intolerance