Showing posts with label antituberculosis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label antituberculosis. Show all posts

Thursday, March 12, 2015

Combination of bedaquiline and verapamil reduces side effects, improves outcomes for TB patients

In continuation of my update on Bedaquiline

While an effective treatment is available for combating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, it carries serious side effects for patients. New research conducted at the Center for Tuberculosis Research at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine shows that lower doses of the toxic drug bedaquiline — given together with verapamil, a medication that's used to treat various heart conditions — can lead to the same antibacterial effects as higher toxic doses of bedaquiline. The combination of the two drugs could potentially shorten treatment time, reduce the side effects of bedaquiline and improve patient outcomes for those suffering from TB.

The study will be published in the January 2014 issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. The lead author is William Bishai, M.D., Ph.D., co-director of the Center for Tuberculosis Research.

"Using a mouse model of tuberculosis, we have shown lower doses of bedaquiline together with verapamil have the same antibacterial effect as the higher toxic doses," says Shashank Gupta, Ph.D., a research fellow at Johns Hopkins. "A lower dose of bedaquiline will cause no or less severe side effects."

Two years ago, bedaquiline became the first drug in the last four decades to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. The drug works by inhibiting an enzyme used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to replicate and spread throughout the body. While it can be a lifesaving therapy against one of the world's deadliest diseases, bedaquiline can also cause serious side effects in the heart and liver. Therefore, strategies to reduce the dose of bedaquiline while retaining its antibacterial activity would provide significant benefits to patients.

"Shortening treatment regimens and reducing the required doses may be a promising strategy to reduce the incidence of bedaquiline-related adverse effects and thereby improve multidrug-resistant TB treatment outcomes," says Gupta.

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Multitarget TB drug could treat other diseases, evade resistance -- ScienceDaily

A drug under clinical trials to treat tuberculosis could be the basis for a class  of broad-spectrum drugs that act against various bacteria, fungal infections and parasites, yet evade resistance, according to a study. The team determined the different ways the drug SQ109 attacks the tuberculosis bacterium, how the drug can be tweaked to target other pathogens from yeast to malaria  and how targeting multiple pathways reduces the probability of pathogens becoming resistant.

Led by U. of I. chemistry professor Eric Oldfield, the team determined the different ways the drug SQ109 attacks the tuberculosis bacterium, how the drug  can be tweaked to target other pathogens from yeast to malaria -- and how targeting multiple pathways reduces the probability of pathogens becoming resistant. SQ109 is made by Sequella Inc., a pharmaceutical company. 

"Drug resistance is a major public health threat," Oldfield said. "We have to make new antibiotics, and we have to find ways to get around the resistance problem. And one way to do that is with multitarget drugs. Resistance in many cases arises because there's a specific mutation in the target protein so the drug will no longer bind. Thus, one possible route to attacking the drug resistance problem will be to devise drugs that don't have just one target, but
two or three targets."

Oldfield read published reports about SQ109 and realized that the drug would likely be multifunctional because it had chemical features similar to those found in other systems he had investigated. The original developers had identified one key action against tuberculosis -- blocking a protein involved in building the cell wall of the bacterium -- but conceded that the drug could have other actions within the cell as well since it was found to kill other bacteria and
fungi that lacked the target protein. Oldfield believed he could identify those actions  and perhaps improve upon SQ109. 
"I was reading Science magazine one day and saw this molecule, SQ109, and I thought, that looks a bit like molecules we've been studying that have multiple targets," Oldfield said. "Given its chemical structure, we thought that some of the enzymes that we study as cancer and antiparasitic drug targets also could be SQ109 targets. We hoped that we could make some analogs that would be more potent against tuberculosis, and maybe even against parasites.

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Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Novel two-drug combination cures young patient with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis

The combination of meropenem (above structure)  with clavulanate (right structure-potassium salt)  has high antimycobacterial activity in vitro against extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Researchers report the successful use of this combination in association with linezolid (below structure)  in the management of an advanced extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis disease with complex second-line drug resistance in a 14-year-old teenager.


Monday, April 18, 2011

New substance (Benzothiazin derivative) to tackle drug resistant tuberculosis...

Project NM4TB which gathers 18 research teams from 13 countries, discovered a novel class of substances, called benzothiazinones (BTZ-see structure), that could be used in the treatment of tuberculosis and drug resistant tuberculosis.

Prof Stewart Cole, Dr Vadim Makarov, Dr Ute Möllmann, Prof Giovanna Riccardi, and their colleagues have identified a novel class of compounds called benzothiazinones (BTZ) that act by preventing the TB bacterium from constructing its cell wall. In particular, one member of the class, BTZ043 was extremely potent, killing the TB agent, both in test tube experiments and in mouse models of the disease. BTZ043 is as effective as the two main drugs (Isoniazid and Rifampicin) in reducing the bacterial levels in the lungs and spleens of infected mice. The target of the new class of compounds is a component of Mycobacterium’s cell-wall-building machinery that has never before been used as a drug target. The most advanced compound of this new class, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB. 

These substances act by preventing the bacteria that cause tuberculosis from constructing their cell wall. This discovery represents an important breakthrough in the battle against tuberculosis as the most advanced compound of this new class, BTZ043, is also effective against extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).

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