Showing posts with label antiinflammatory activity. Show all posts
Showing posts with label antiinflammatory activity. Show all posts

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Researchers uncover mechanism by which anti-inflammatory processes may cause Alzheimer's

Inflammation has long been studied in Alzheimer's, but in a counterintuitive finding reported in a new paper, University of Florida researchers have uncovered the mechanism by which anti-inflammatory processes may trigger the disease.

This anti-inflammatory process might actually trigger the build-up of sticky clumps of protein that form plaques in the brain. These plaques block brain cells' ability to communicate and are a well-known characteristic of the illness.

The finding suggests that Alzheimer's treatments might need to be tailored to patients depending on which forms of Apolipoprotein E, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, these patients carry in their genes.

The researchers have shown that the anti-inflammatory protein interleukin 10, or IL-10, can actually increase the amount of apolipoprotein E, or APOE, protein -- and thereby plaque -- that accumulates in the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer's, according to the study, published online today (Jan. 22) in the journal Neuron.

Friday, July 19, 2013

Scientists show how DHA resolves inflammation

In continuation of my update on DHA.

Chronic inflammation is a major factor in a wide range of problems from arthritis to cardiovascular disease, and DHA (struct above, found in fish oil) is known to temper this problem. A new research report appearing in the July 2013 issue of The FASEB Journal, helps explain why DHA is important in reducing inflammation, and provides an important lead to finding new drugs that will help bring people back to optimal health. Specifically, researchers found that macrophages (a type of white blood cell) use DHA to produce "maresins," (struct below) which serve as the "switch" that turns inflammation off and switches on resolution...

Scientists show how DHA resolves inflammation

Thursday, March 22, 2012

Researchers unlock mystery of how an inflammatory molecule is produced in the body

Researchers unlock mystery of how an inflammatory molecule is produced in the body: Cedars-Sinai researchers have unlocked the mystery of how an inflammatory molecule is produced in the body, a discovery they say could lead to advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Type 2 diabetes and numerous other chronic diseases that affect tens of millions of people.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Anti-inflammatory drugs may offer novel treatment for CHD

Anti-inflammatory drugs may offer novel treatment for CHD: A large international study indicates that anti-inflammatory drugs may become a new tool for preventing and treating coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading global cause of death.

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib inhibits T cell-dependent inflammatory responses - a new hope for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases?

In continuation of my update on Bortezomib, I found this info interesting to share with..
Japanese scientists lead by Dr. Koichi Yanaba, of Department of Dermatology at Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences used mice to show that bortezomib, currently used to treat cancers that affect white blood cells, induces cell death only in harmful (active and proliferating) T cells, leaving the rest unharmed. If the results prove true in humans, it offers hope that this drugs or others similar to it might be used to treat inflammatory diseases without the side effects of current drugs that affect all T cells equally.
To make this discovery, scientists used two groups of mice the first treated with bortezomib and the second with saline. Researchers induced contact hypersensitivity reaction with oxazolone, a chemical allergen used for immunological experiments and found that bortezomib significantly inhibited the contact hypersensitivity responses. Results strongly suggest that bortezomib treatment enhanced T cell death by inhibiting NF-kappa B activation, which plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. This in turn led to the suppression of inflammatory responses in immune cells by reducing interferon-gamma production.
"We believe that this new-type remedy for autoimmune and inflammatory disease could successfully treat them in the near future", claims Dr. Koichi Yanaba...

As per the claim by the researchers, bortezomib potently inhibited CHS responses. The attenuation of CHS responses was associated with decreased inflammatory cell infiltration in the challenged skin. Specifically, bortezomib-treated mice showed significantly decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the challenged skin and draining lymph nodes. Cytoplasmic IFN-{gamma} production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes was decreased substantially by bortezomib treatment. Notably, bortezomib enhanced T cell apoptosis by inhibiting NF-{kappa}B activation during CHS responses. Thus, bortezomib treatment is likely to induce T cell death, thereby suppressing CHS responses by reducing IFN-{gamma} production. These findings suggest that bortezomib treatment could be a promising strategy for treating autoimmune and inflammatory disease.

Saturday, May 8, 2010

Vinpocetine from the periwinkle plant, as a potent anti-inflammatory agent....

Vinpocetine (ethyl apovincaminate (see chemical structure,   is  a  semisynthetic   derivative   of  alkaloid   vincamine - an  extract  from the  periwinkle plant (see picture) Vinca minor) is a well-known natural product that was originally discovered nearly 30 years ago and is currently used as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of cognitive disorders, such as stroke and memory loss, in Europe, Japan and China.
The therapy has no evidence of toxicity or noticeable side effects in human patients. Now scientists at the University of Rochester hope to reposition this compound as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of COPD, and potentially other inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, otitis media, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and psoriasis in the future.
As per the claim by the lead researcher Dr. Jian-Dong Li,  vinpocetine decreases inflammation by targeting the activity of a specific enzyme, known as IKK. IKK is responsible for regulating inflammation, and does so through the activation of a key protein, nuclear-factor kappaB (NF-κB). By directly inhibiting IKK, vinpocetine is able to switch off NF-κB, which normally produces pro-inflammatory molecules that cause inflammation. Halting the activity of NF-κB ultimately reduces inflammation. 
"Given vinpocetine's efficacy and solid safety profile, we believe there is great potential to bring this drug to market." claims co-author,  Dr. Bradford C. Berk...

Inflammatory diseases are a major cause of illness worldwide. For example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. In people with COPD, airflow is blocked due to chronic bronchitis or emphysema, making it increasingly difficult to breathe. Most COPD is caused by long-term smoking, although genetics may play a role as well.....

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Sunday, February 28, 2010

Serotonin-Specific Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRIs) as antiinflammatory agents?

We know that Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders. They are also typically effective and used in treating premature ejaculation problems as well as some cases of insomnia.  Now researchers from Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS) in the UK, lead by Dr. Sandra Sacre have come up with an interesting findings, i.e., two SSRIs fluoxetine citalopram significantly inhibited disease progression of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. As per the claim by the researchers both SSRIs exhibited antiinflammatory effects and may provide drug development opportunities for arthritic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Prior studies (of SSRIs)  have shown that patients with depression,  who respond to treatment with SSRIs display a reduction in cytokine levels (signals that can induce inflammation), suggesting a connection between SSRIs and the immune system. 

In the current study, researchers used a CIA mouse model due to the similarities to human RA, including synovitis, bone erosion and pannus formation. At the onset of arthritis, mice were treated daily for 7 days with a dose of 10 or 25 mg/kg of fluoxetine and 25 mg/kg of citalopram. At the lower dose of fluoxetine the mice showed a small reduction in the clinical score (a combined measure of redness, swelling and joint mobility/deformity) and a slower increase in paw swelling. At a dose of 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine halted disease progression and no further elevation was noted in the clinical score or paw swelling.

Researchers observed reduced inflammation, reduced cartilage and bone erosion, and a preservation of the joint structure in the mice treated with a higher dose of fluoxetine.  Citalopram was not as effective as fluoxetine at inhibiting disease progression in this model. 

They  also observed a decrease in cytokine production from cultures of human RA synovial joint tissues that were treated with SSRIs.  Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are strong activators of immune cells leading to the production of cytokines that can induce inflammation. Fluoxetine was found to inhibit the activation of TLRs more effectively than citalopram. 

Researchers conclude that SSRIs effectively target TLRs contributing to inflammation and could provide therapeutic benefit in RA, they are not ideal candidates to progress into clinical trials (from the data, the  effective inhibition of RA requires levels of the drugs higher than the safe therapeutic dosages.) The authors suggest further study of the role of TLRs in chronic inflammation may uncover drugs that offer an effective treatment of RA in the future..... 

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Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Anticancer & Antiinflammatory properties of Lunasin (Soy Peptide) established ?...

We know that many researchers have tried to establish the anticancer activity of the peptide lunasin (which has been already accepted as neutraceutical agent). Now researchers from University of Illinois have come up with more interesting facts, Soy peptide often discarded in the waste streams of soy-processing plants, may have important health benefits that include fighting leukemia and blocking the inflammation that accompanies such chronic health conditions as diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

The researchers confirmed lunasin's bioavailability in the human body by doing a third study in which men consumed 50 grams of soy protein--one soy milk shake and a serving of soy chili daily-for five days. Significant levels of the peptide in the participants' blood give us confidence that lunasin-rich soy foods can be important in providing these health benefits.

In the cancer study, de Mejia's group identified a key sequence of amino acids- arginine, glycine, and aspartic acid, (the RGD motif)--that triggered the death of leukemia cells by activating a protein called caspase-3. The scientists also verified lunasin's ability to inhibit topoisomerase 2, an enzyme that marks the development of cancer, and they were able to quantify the number of leukemia cells that were killed after treatment with lunasin in laboratory experiments.

More interesting out come of their study is lunasin's potential anti-inflammatory activity, (first time) they showed that lunasin blocked or reduced the activation of an important marker called NF-kappa-B, a link in the chain of biochemical events that cause inflammation. They also found statistically significant reductions in interleukin-1 and interleukin-6, both important players in the inflammatory process (the reduction in interleukin-6 was particularly strong). As per the claim by the group, although the high cost of obtaining lunasin from soy waste limits its use for nutritional interventions, soy flour does contain high concentrations of the peptide (depending on some genotype soy).

Its good see the diverse activities associated with Soy......

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Saturday, November 28, 2009

Palmitoylethanolamide - a natural body fat as antiinflammatory agent !

About Palmitoylethanolamide : Palmitoylethanolamide, is an endogenous fatty acid amide which has been demonstrated to bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) , GPR55 and GPR119. PEA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. PEA is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA), the latter of which has more specificity towards PEA over other fatty acid amides.

For decades, it has been known that palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), is a potent anti-inflammatory substance that reduces both allergic symptoms and occurrences of rheumatic fever, but researchers understood little about how PEA works. But now Daniele Piomelli, the Louise Turner Arnold (Chair in Neurosciences at UCI), and colleagues found that levels of PEA are tightly regulated by immune system cells. In turn, PEA helps control the activity of these cells, which are called into action to fight infection, disease and injury in the body. In addition, they found that PEA - also present in foods like eggs and peanuts , is deactivated by a protein called N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, which is an enzyme that breaks down molecules controlling cell inflammation.

When given to rodents, the compound increased the levels of PEA in their immune cells and reduced the amount of inflammation elicited by an inflammatory substance. Furthermore, when administered to the spinal cords of mice after spinal cord injury, the compound decreased inflammation associated with the trauma and improved the recovery of motor function.

As most of the antiinflammatory drugs available these days have side effects, this drug may be a boon to the sufferers....

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