Showing posts sorted by relevance for query tenofovir. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query tenofovir. Sort by date Show all posts

Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Mylan Introduces Symfi (efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) Triple Combo Once-Daily HIV Treatment in the U.S.

Tenofovir disoproxil structure.svg    Lamivudine structure.svg         Efavirenz.svg

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate                              Lamivudine                   Efavirenz           

In continuation of my update, on Tenofovir, Lamivudine and Efavirenz

Global pharmaceutical company Mylan N.V.  announced that it will introduce in the U.S. a third cost-saving HIV combination. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Symfi (efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) 600 mg/300 mg/300 mg tablets, a once-daily, single-tablet regimen (STR), indicated as a complete regimen for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adult and pediatric patients weighing at least 40 kg.

"As the largest supplier of antiretrovirals by volume in the world, Mylan has a longstanding commitment to expanding affordable access to treatments for people living with HIV," said Mylan CEO Heather Bresch. "As we continue to grow our U.S. portfolio of ARV products, now including Symfi Lo™, Symfi™, and Cimduo™, we are providing access to patients and empowering them to choose the lower-cost ARV treatment option that is right for them."
The introduction of Symfi™ comes after the FDA's recent approval of two Mylan ARVs: Cimduo™ (lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) 300 mg/300 mg tablets, a once-daily combination of two nucleo(t)side reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and pediatric patients weighing at least 35 kg.; and Symfi Lo™ (efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) 400 mg/300 mg/300 mg tablets, also approved for patients with HIV-1 in adults and pediatric patients weighing at least 35 kg.
Following FDA approval, Mylan launched Symfi Lo™ earlier in March. It expects Cimduo™ and Symfi™ to launch in the second quarter of 2018.
Symfi™ and Symfi Lo™ feature the same triple combination of molecules; however, Symfi Lo™ features a reduced dose of efavirenz while Symfi™ uses a dosing similar to other efavirenz products already on the market. The combination represented by Symfi™ (efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) 600 mg/300 mg/300 mg tablets is the most widely-taken ARV regimen outside of the U.S., with more than 7 million users worldwide in 20161.
In 2017, HIV was the category with highest pharmacy spend for Medicaid, the third highest for health exchange plans and the fifth highest for commercial plans.2 According to IQVIA, total spending on HIV drugs has more than tripled since 2007, outpacing the approximate 60% growth in overall drug spending.
To help reduce the high cost of HIV treatment in the U.S, the list price of these Mylan ARVs will be discounted significantly from the wholesale acquisition cost of similar medicines on the market.
"Mylan has been on the forefront of bringing innovative delivery and dosage forms of ARVs to millions of patients in the developing world," said Mylan President Rajiv Malik. "We've already extended our reach to people in the U.S. living with HIV with the introduction of Symfi Lo™ and Cimduo™. Adding Symfi™ to our portfolio further strengthens our commitment to investing in developing and manufacturing these important products."
Lactic acidosis and hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues including lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus and HIV who have discontinued lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

Thursday, May 26, 2016

FDA Approves Odefsey (emtricitabine, rilpivirine and tenofovir alafenamide) for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

Gilead Sciences, Inc announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Odefsey (emtricitabine 200 mg/rilpivirine 25 mg/tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg or R/F/TAF) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in certain patients. Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide are from Gilead Sciences and rilpivirine is from Janssen Sciences Ireland UC, one of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson (Janssen). Odefsey is Gilead’s second TAF-based regimen to receive FDA approval and represents the smallest pill of any single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV.

Emtricitabine skeletal.svgEmtricitabine  Rilpivirine.svgRilpivirine  Tenofovir alafenamide structure.svgTenofovir alafenamide

Odefsey is indicated as a complete regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in patients 12 years of age and older who have no antiretroviral treatment history and HIV-1 RNA levels less than or equal to 100,000 copies per mL. Odefsey is also indicated as replacement for a stable antiretroviral regimen in those who are virologically-suppressed (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL) for at least six months with no history of treatment failure and no known substitutions associated with resistance to the individual components of Odefsey. No dosage adjustment of Odefsey is required in patients with estimated creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 30 mL per minute.
Odefsey has a boxed warning in its product label regarding the risks of lactic acidosis/severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, and post treatment acute exacerbation of hepatitis B.
TAF is a novel targeted prodrug of tenofovir that has demonstrated high antiviral efficacy similar to and at a dose less than one-tenth that of Gilead’s Viread (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, TDF). TAF has also demonstrated improvement in surrogate laboratory markers of renal and bone safety as compared to TDF in clinical trials in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Data show that because TAF enters cells, including HIV-infected cells, more efficiently than TDF, it can be given at a much lower dose and there is 90 percent less tenofovir in the bloodstream.

Thursday, November 15, 2018

FDA Approves Merck’s Delstrigo (doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) for the Treatment of HIV-1 in Appropriate Patients

In continuation of my update on Lamivudine and Tenofovir


Doravirine structure.svg  Lamivudine structure.svg  Tenofovir disoproxil structure.svg




doravirine                                 Lamivudine                                             Tenofovir




Merck  known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Delstrigo, a once-daily fixed-dose combination tablet of doravirine (100 mg), lamivudine (3TC, 300 mg) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, 300 mg) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adult patients with no prior antiretroviral treatment experience. Delstrigo is administered orally once daily with or without food. Delstrigo contains a boxed warning regarding post-treatment acute exacerbation of hepatitis B (HBV) infection. Delstrigo does not cure HIV-1 infection or AIDS.

The FDA also approved Pifeltro (doravirine, 100 mg), the new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) contained in Delstrigo, for administration in combination with other antiretroviral medicines.
Delstrigo is contraindicated when co-administered with drugs that are strong cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A enzyme inducers as significant decreases in doravirine plasma concentrations may occur, which may decrease the effectiveness of Delstrigo. Delstrigo is contraindicated in patients with a previous hypersensitivity reaction to 3TC. For more information, see “Selected Safety Information” below.
Immune reconstitution syndrome can occur, including the occurrence of autoimmune disorders with variable time to onset, which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment. Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome, have been reported with the use of TDF. Delstrigo should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, as cases of acute renal failure after initiation of high-dose or multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported in patients with risk factors for renal dysfunction who appeared stable on TDF.

Data Supporting the Approval of Delstrigo (doravirine 100 mg/3TC 300 mg/TDF 300 mg)

The FDA approvals of Delstrigo and Pifeltro are based on findings from the pivotal, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, active controlled Phase 3 trials, DRIVE-AHEAD and DRIVE-FORWARD, evaluating the efficacy and safety of Delstrigo and Pifeltro, respectively, in participants infected with HIV-1 with no antiretroviral treatment history.

Thursday, July 7, 2016

TDF, entecavir duo 'highly effective' for difficult-to-treat chronic HBV

The combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir induces a high rate of viral suppression in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who have failed multiple nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) regimens, phase IIIb results indicate.

Entecavir structure.svg  VIREAD® (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) Structural Formula Illustration

Entecavir                                                                         Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 

The dual therapy could be "a highly effective option for difficult-to-treat multidrug-resistant" chronic HBV patients, the team writes in Liver International.

The 64 patients enrolled in this study had persistent viraemia, defined as serum HBV DNA levels above 60 IU/mL despite a minimum 24 weeks of rescue therapy, and documented genotypic resistance to one or more nucleoside analogue and a nucleotide analogue.

Treatment with TDF 300 mg and entecavir 1 mg once a day led to complete virological response (CVR), defined as HBV DNA levels under 60 IU/mL, in over half (56.3%) of the study population at 12 weeks. The CVR rate rose to 67.2% at week 24 and 85.9% at week 48.
The proportion of patients who achieved HBV DNA levels below 12 IU/mL, the lower limit of detection in this study, was 32.8%, 51.6% and 62.5% at weeks 12, 24 and 48, respectively.
The antiviral efficacy of the dual regimen was not affected by baseline viral load or the presence of baseline resistance mutations, report Sang Hoon Ahn (Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea) and fellow ESTEEM investigators.

However, a smaller proportion of participants with baseline triple resistance to lamivudine, adefovir and entecavir achieved CVR at week 48 relative to those with single or double resistance at baseline, at 67.7% versus rates ranging from 83.3% to 100.0%.

Virological breakthroughs occurred in five patients, but were transient in all cases and HBV DNA levels declined as treatment continued, say the researchers. And they add that none of the eight participants without CVR at week 48 had resistance mutations to TDF or any novel mutations.


TDF, entecavir duo 'highly effective' for difficult-to-treat chronic HBV: The combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and entecavir induces a high rate of viral suppression in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection who have failed multiple nucleos(t)ide analogue regimens, phase IIIb results indicate.

Monday, April 16, 2018

Antiviral drug not beneficial for reducing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B when added to existing preventatives

In continuation of my update on Tenofovir
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an antiviral drug commonly prescribed to treat hepatitis B infection, does not significantly reduce mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus when taken during pregnancy and after delivery, according to a phase III clinical trial in Thailand funded by the National Institutes of Health. The study tested TDF therapy in addition to the standard preventative regimen — administration of hepatitis B vaccine and protective antibodies at birth — to explore the drug’s potential effects on mother-to-child transmission rates. The results appear in the New England Journal of Medicine.
“Limited evidence of the benefit of using antiviral drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B has led to conflicting practice recommendations around the world,” said Nahida Chakhtoura, M.D., a study team member and medical officer at NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). “Our study suggests that adding TDF to the current regimen seems to have little effect on infant infection rates when transmission rates are already low.”
To prevent infection, WHO recommends that all newborns receive their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of delivery. Infants born to hepatitis B-infected mothers are also given protective antibodies called hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG). However, mother-to-child transmission can still occur in women with high levels of virus in their blood, as well as those with mutated versions of the virus.


The current study was conducted at 17 hospitals of the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand. It screened more than 2,500 women for eligibility and enrolled 331 pregnant women with hepatitis B. The women received placebo (163) or TDF (168) at intervals from 28 weeks of pregnancy to two months after delivery. All infants received standard hepatitis B preventatives given in Thailand, which include HBIG at birth and five doses of the hepatitis B vaccine by age 6 months (which differs from the three doses given in the United States). A total of 294 infants (147 in each group) were followed through age 6 months.
Three infants in the placebo group had hepatitis B infection at age 6 months, compared to zero infants in the TDF treatment group. Given the unexpectedly low transmission rate in the placebo group, the researchers concluded that the addition of TDF to current recommendations did not significantly reduce mother-to-child transmission of the virus.
“We observed no treatment-related safety concerns for the mothers or infants and no significant differences in infant growth,” said the study’s lead author Gonzague Jourdain, M.D., Ph.D., of Thailand’s Chiang Mai University, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and France’s IRD (Institut de recherche pour le développement). “These safety data also are relevant for pregnant women receiving TDF as part of HIV treatment or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.”
According to the study authors, the clinical trial had enough participants to detect statistical differences if the transmission rate in the placebo group reached at least 12 percent, a rate observed in previous studies. Though the reasons are unknown, the researchers speculate that the lower transmission rate seen in the study may relate to the number of doses of hepatitis B vaccine given to infants in Thailand, lower rates of amniocentesis and Cesarean section deliveries in this study, or the lower prevalence of mutated viruses that result in higher vaccine efficacy in Thailand compared to other countries.
Ref : http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1708131

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

Bristol-Myers Squibb Receives US FDA sNDA Approval for Use of SUSTIVA® (efavirenz) in HIV-1 Infected Pediatric Patients | BMS Newsroom

We know that, Efavirenz (EFV, brand names Sustiva, Stocrin, Efavir etc.) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and is used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1.


For HIV infection that has not previously been treated, the United States Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines currently recommends the use of efavirenz in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada) as one of the preferred NNRTI-based regimens in adults and adolescents .

Efavirenz is also used in combination with other antiretroviral agents as part of an expanded postexposure prophylaxis regimen to reduce the risk of HIV infection in people exposed to a significant risk (e.g. needlestick injuries, certain types of unprotected sex etc.).


The usual adult dose is 600 mg once a day. It is usually taken on an empty stomach at bedtime to reduce neurological and psychiatric adverse effects.


Efavirenz was combined with the popular HIV medication Truvada, which consists of tenofovir and emtricitabine, all of which are reverse transcriptase inhibitors. This combination of three medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 2006 under the brand name Atripla, provides HAART in a single tablet taken once a day. It results in a simplified drug regimen for many patients.
 

Monday, May 21, 2012

Truvada deemed safe & effective in HIV infection risk reduction

Gilead Sciences Inc's Truvada pills are deemed  safe  and  effective  for  reducing the risk of HIV infection, U.S. regulators said on Tuesday. But they recommended a cautious approach for using the drug in efforts to prevent the virus that causes AIDS.


According to the Food and Drug Administration Truvada - a combination of Gilead's HIV drugs Emtriva (also known as emtricitabine see above structure), and Viread (or tenofovir see below left structure), which is already being used by patients with the human immunodeficiency virus, is well (left structure is that of  Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate)   tolerated overall by uninfected people and may prevent infection in high-risk individuals when used in combination with other strategies. The FDA acknowledged a strong correlation between the drug's efficacy at reducing HIV infection and the willingness of those taking it to adhere to the treatment.




Researchers speculated that women may require a higher dose of the drug to prevent infection. They also said the disappointing results may have resulted from women not taking the pills consistently. 
“We know that if the person doesn't take the medication every day they will not be protected,” said Dr. Rodney Wright, director of HIV programs at Montefiore Medical Center in New York and chairman of the AIDS Health Foundation. “So the concern is that there may not be adequate adherence to provide protection in the general population.” (right structure is Emtricitabine).

An outside panel of experts is scheduled to examine the FDA review documents on Thursday and make recommendations that U.S. health regulators will consider in deciding whether the drug should be used as a preventive treatment. Some experts have warned that the drug is only partly effective against HIV and that using it to prevent infection could cause protection from the virus to falter if patients fail to adhere to treatment.



Wednesday, November 14, 2018

FDA Approves Merck’s Delstrigo (doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) for the Treatment of HIV-1 in Appropriate Patients

In continuation of my update on Imbruvica (ibrutinib)


The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Imbruvica (ibrutinib) in combination with rituximab for the treatment of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (WM), a rare blood cancer.[1] The approval expands the label for Imbruvica in WM beyond its current approved use as a monotherapy to include combination use with rituximab. This approval represents the first approved non-chemotherapy combination option for the treatment of WM. Imbruvica first received FDA approval in WM as a monotherapy in January 2015 via the Breakthrough Therapy Designation pathway, making it the first FDA-approved therapy for the disease. The expanded label marks the ninth FDA approval for Imbruvica since 2013. Imbruvica is a first-in-class Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor jointly developed and commercialized by Janssen Biotech, Inc. and Pharmacyclics LLC, an AbbVie company.

Ibrutinib.svg

The combination of Imbruvica and rituximab provides health care professionals with a new treatment option for patients living with this serious blood cancer,” said Dr. Lia Palomba, hematologist-oncologist at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and iNNOVATE study investigator. “Before Imbruvica, there were no FDA-approved treatment options for patients with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, a disease first acknowledged nearly 75 years ago. Today, Imbruvica continues to provide an important therapeutic approach in the treatment of this complex disease.”
This approval is based on results from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled iNNOVATE study (PCYC-1127), the largest Phase 3 study of a non-chemotherapy combination in WM patients. The iNNOVATE study evaluated Imbruvica in combination with rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab in 150 patients with either relapsed/refractory (r/r) disease or previously untreated WM. At a median follow up of 26.5 months, a significant improvement in the Independent Review Committee (IRC)-assessed primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) was seen with Imbruvica plus rituximab when compared with placebo plus rituximab (30-month PFS rates were 82% vs. 28%, respectively). Patients in the Imbruvica plus rituximab treatment arm experienced an 80% reduction in relative risk of disease progression or death compared with patients treated with placebo plus rituximab (hazard ratio=0.20; confidence interval, 0.11-0.38, p<0.0001). The data were presented in an oral session at the 2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, selected for Best of ASCO 2018 Meetings, and simultaneously published in The New England Journal of Medicine.
“Results from iNNOVATE showed significant improvement in progression-free survival at 30 months and demonstrated the superiority of Imbruvica plus rituximab over rituximab monotherapy in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia,” said Meletios A. Dimopoulos, M.D., Professor and Chairman of the Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece, and iNNOVATE lead study investigator. “Based on these results, Imbruvica in combination with rituximab may be considered as a first- and second-line option for appropriate people diagnosed and living with WM.”
“The clinical data generated for Imbruvica plus rituximab in the treatment of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia offers physicians evidence to consider this combination regimen for newly-diagnosed patients. Today’s approval represents an important milestone for people living with this rare and incurable blood cancer who have limited FDA-approved treatment options,” said Andree Amelsberg, M.D., Vice President of Oncology Medical Affairs at Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC. “We remain dedicated to a comprehensive clinical development program to explore the full potential of Imbruvica, including in combination with other therapies.”
Warnings and Precautions remain the same: hemorrhage, infections, cytopenias, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, second primary malignancies, tumor lysis syndrome, and embryo-fetal toxicity. The most common adverse reactions (occurring in 20% or more of patients) of all grades in patients treated with Imbruvica plus rituximab in the iNNOVATE study were bruising (37%), musculoskeletal pain (35%), hemorrhage (32%), diarrhea (28%), rash (24%), arthralgia (24%), nausea (21%), and hypertension (20%). Grade 3 or 4 infusion-related reactions were observed in 1% of patients treated with Imbruvica plus rituximab.
The recommended dose of Imbruvica for WM is 420 mg orally once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity as a single agent or in combination with rituximab. When administering Imbruvica in combination with rituximab, consider administering Imbruvica prior to rituximab when given on the same day.

Ref : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibrutinib

Saturday, May 18, 2019

FDA Approves Dovato (dolutegravir/lamivudine) for HIV-1 Infection

In continuation of my update on Dolutegravir & Lamivudine



Dolutegravir.svg
Dolutegravir (DTG)

Lamivudine structure.svg
Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC

ViiV Healthcare  announced the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Dovato, a complete, once-daily, single-tablet regimen of dolutegravir (DTG) 50 mg and lamivudine (3TC) 300 mg for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults with no antiretroviral (ARV) treatment history and with no known resistance to either DTG or 3TC. Dovato, a two-drug regimen (2DR), reduces exposure to the number of ARVs from the start of treatment, while still maintaining the efficacy and high barrier to resistance of a traditional DTG-based three-drug regimen.
Deborah Waterhouse, CEO, ViiV Healthcare, said: “Building on our innovative portfolio of medicines, Dovato is powered by dolutegravir, an antiretroviral included in multiple combination therapies and the most prescribed integrase inhibitor in the world, 2 coupled with the established profile of lamivudine. With Dovato, the first complete, single-tablet, two-drug regimen for treatment-naïve adults, ViiV Healthcare is delivering what patients are requesting—a chance to treat their HIV-1 infection with as few drugs as possible, marking a significant step in HIV treatment.”
The approval of Dovato is supported by the landmark global GEMINI 1 and 2 studies that included more than 1,400 HIV-1 infected adults. In these studies, DTG + 3TC demonstrated non-inferiority based on plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter (c/mL), a standard measure of HIV-1 control, at Week 48 when compared to a three-drug regimen of DTG and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC), in treatment-naïve, HIV-1 infected adults. The safety results for DTG + 3TC seen in GEMINI 1 and 2 were consistent with the product labelling for DTG and 3TC. No patient who experienced virologic failure in either treatment arm developed treatment-emergent resistance.
Pedro Cahn, principal investigator for the GEMINI study program said: “People are now living longer with HIV and will spend a lifetime taking drugs to suppress their virus. The approval of the fixed dose combination of dolutegravir and lamivudine, a complete, single-tablet, two-drug regimen, marks a pivotal moment in the treatment of HIV-1. Treatment-naïve people living with the virus have a powerful option that delivers non-inferior efficacy to a dolutegravir-based three-drug regimen, allowing them to take fewer ARVs and get and remain suppressed.”
Jeff Berry, Test Positive Aware Network (TPAN), said: “The approval of Dovato is a welcome paradigm shift, as it brings an innovative treatment approach to newly diagnosed adults with HIV-1. By exposing patients to fewer drugs at the start of treatment, the hope is to help address concerns arising from overall management of prolonged ARV therapy.”
DTG/3TC as a complete, once-daily, single-tablet, two-drug regimen for HIV-1 therapy is currently under review by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and regulatory authorities in Canada, Australia, Switzerland, and South Africa and several additional submissions are planned throughout 2019.

About Dovato (dolutegravir/lamivudine)

Dovato is approved as a complete regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults with no known antiretroviral treatment history and with no known substitutions associated with resistance to either dolutegravir or lamivudine. Dovato is a once-daily, single-tablet, two-drug regimen that combines the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) dolutegravir (Tivicay, 50 mg) with the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) lamivudine (Epivir, 300 mg).
Like a DTG-based three-drug regimen, Dovato uses only two drugs to inhibit the viral cycle at two different sites. INSTIs, like dolutegravir, inhibit HIV replication by preventing the viral DNA from integrating into the genetic material of human immune cells (T-cells). This step is essential in the HIV replication cycle and is also responsible for establishing chronic infection. Lamivudine is an NRTI that works by interfering with the conversion of viral RNA into DNA which in turn stops the virus from multiplying.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolutegravir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamivudine

Saturday, November 17, 2018

FDA Approves Merck’s Pifeltro (doravirine) for the Treatment of HIV-1 in Appropriate Patients



Image result for Pifeltro (doravirine)


Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Pifeltro (doravirine, 100 mg), a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) to be administered in combination with other antiretroviral medicines. Pifeltro is indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adult patients with no prior antiretroviral treatment experience, and is administered orally once daily with or without food. Pifeltro does not cure HIV-1 infection or AIDS.


The FDA also approved Delstrigo, a once-daily fixed-dose combination tablet of doravirine (100 mg), lamivudine (3TC, 300 mg) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, 300 mg).

Pifeltro is contraindicated when co-administered with drugs that are strong cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A enzyme inducers as significant decreases in doravirine plasma concentrations may occur, which may decrease the effectiveness of Pifeltro.

Friday, November 16, 2018

FDA Approves Merck’s Pifeltro (doravirine) for the Treatment of HIV-1 in Appropriate Patients


Merck,  known as MSD outside the United States and Canada,  announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Pifeltro (doravirine, 100 mg), a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) to be administered in combination with other antiretroviral medicines. Pifeltro is indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adult patients with no prior antiretroviral treatment experience, and is administered orally once daily with or without food. Pifeltro does not cure HIV-1 infection or AIDS.
Image result for Pifeltro (doravirine)
The FDA also approved Delstrigo, a once-daily fixed-dose combination tablet of doravirine (100 mg), lamivudine (3TC, 300 mg) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, 300 mg).
Pifeltro is contraindicated when co-administered with drugs that are strong cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A enzyme inducers as significant decreases in doravirine plasma concentrations may occur, which may decrease the effectiveness of Pifeltro.

Thursday, July 5, 2018

Single-tablet HIV treatment shows better outcomes over multi-tablet regimen


In continuation of my update on "teofovir"

HIV patients on a single-tablet daily regimen had better treatment retention and viral suppression than patients taking multiple pills, in a study by a Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center researcher and his colleagues.

The results were published in the Feb. 25, 2018, issue of AIDS Care.
HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, weakens the human immune system. It increases the risk of catching other common infections and conditions that don't usually affect people with stronger immune systems. As the infection progresses, it can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). If untreated, the average survival time with HIV is 9 to 11 years.
In 2016, more than 28,000 veterans with HIV received care from VA.
HIV care has come a long way in recent years. Combination antiretroviral therapy was introduced in the 1990s. This treatment led to significant reductions in deaths due to HIV infection. However, these early treatments were not without their downsides. Early therapy involved complex regimens involving up to a dozen pills each day.
Newer treatment regimens are typically taken only once per day. Once-daily regimens are the new standard for HIV care. Having to take medicine only once per day decreases pill burden, which could improve patients' quality of life and treatment adherence. Some of the newest regimens require only a single daily pill.
While studies have shown that patients prefer a single-tablet regimen, not much research has been done on whether a single pill results in better treatment outcomes than a multiple-tablet regimen. Some of the common multiple-tablet regimens are becoming available in generic versions, meaning they will be less expensive. Insurance companies may insist on these regimens if they are cheaper than a single tablet.
To test whether one treatment approach was better, the research team studied more than 1,000 patients at a non-VA Texas clinic who were just beginning HIV treatment. They looked at 622 patients on a single-tablet regimen and 406 on a multi-tablet regimen, all taken once daily.
While both regimens were based around the drug teofovir (below structure), they did not include the exact same combination of medicines. The multi-tablet regimen also contained an antiretroviral HIV drug class called boosted protease inhibitors, and the single-tablet regimen contained a different class called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

Tenofovir disoproxil structure.svg

After following the patients for a year, the researchers found that the single-tablet regimen compared favorably with the multi-tablet regimen. They measured three aspects of treatment: adherence, retention, and HIV suppression.
Treatment adherence means that patients took their medicine more than 80 percent of the time, based on prescription fills. Interestingly, the two regimens had similar rates of adherence. So that factor alone would not explain the apparent edge for the single-tablet group.
To show retention in care, patients had to visit their doctors for viral load measurements at least twice, at least three months apart, during the first year. Eighty-one percent of the single-tablet group showed retention, compared with 73 percent of the multi-tablet group.
HIV suppression was defined as a viral load in the blood of less than 400 copies per milliliter. In the single-tablet group, 84 percent had viral suppression after the first year. In the multi-tablet group, 78 percent showed suppression.
While the results suggest that single-tablet regimens may lead to better clinical outcomes, more research is needed. Dr. Thomas P. Giordano, a researcher at the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center in Houston and corresponding author on the study, explained that it is not yet entirely clear why the single-pill regimen appears to work better.
"There were not differences in adherence as we could measure it via pharmacy refill dates, which suggests that maybe the single-tablet regimens are more efficacious," he said. "It could also be that the persons who got the multi-tablet regimens had more barriers to care and that is why they did more poorly." He says more studies will be needed to help tease out the differences in the types of medications being used versus the effect of pill burden.
Future research will also need to focus on which treatment is more cost-effective, since single-pill regimens may prove to be more expensive.