Showing posts sorted by relevance for query alectinib. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query alectinib. Sort by date Show all posts

Wednesday, December 27, 2017

Study: Alectinib 600 mg more effective than standard therapy in Asian ALK positive NSCLC patients

In continuation of my update on crizotinib and alectinib

Crizotinib.svg and  Alectinib structure.svg
A subanalysis of the phase III ALEX study has shown that alectinib 600 mg twice daily is more effective than standard of care crizotinib in Asian patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), researchers report at the ESMO Asia 2017 Congress.
The J-ALEX study demonstrated that alectinib 300 mg twice daily improved progression-free survival compared to crizotinib in Japanese patients with ALK positive NSCLC. (3) The ALEX study subsequently showed improvement in progression-free survival with alectinib 600 mg twice daily compared to crizotinib in a global population of ALK positive NSCLC patients. (4)
This subanalysis of the ALEX study investigated the efficacy and safety of alectinib 600 mg twice daily compared to crizotinib in Asian versus non-Asian patients with ALK positive NSCLC. As previously reported, the ALEX study included 303 patients who were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive alectinib or standard of care crizotinib. There were 69 Asian patients in each treatment group. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival.
A distinguishing feature of the study was that all patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain every six months, regardless of whether or not they had brain metastases at the start of the study. The time to progression in the brain was measured and compared between the two treatment groups.
"Around 50% of NSCLC patients with ALK mutations will develop brain metastases so it is very important to demonstrate the efficacy of alectinib in the brain," said lead author Professor Tony S.K. Mok, Chairman, Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
The subanalysis showed similar efficacy and safety with alectinib in Asian and non-Asian patients. Progression-free survival was longer with alectinib compared to crizotinib in Asian and non-Asian populations, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.46 and 0.49, respectively. Alectinib reduced central nervous system (CNS) progression compared to crizotinib in the Asian and non-Asian groups, with cause-specific HRs of 0.21 and 0.16, respectively. Median overall survival was not reached in either subgroup.
Response rates to alectinib and crizotinib were 81.2% versus 76.8%, respectively, for the Asian subgroup and 84.3% versus 74.4%, respectively, for the non-Asian subgroup.
The rates of nausea, vomiting, and grade III toxicities overall were lower with alectinib compared to crizotinib, and similar between the Asian and non-Asian subgroups. Liver toxicity due to alectinib was slightly higher in the Asian compared to the non-Asian subgroup.
Mok said: "Alectinib 600 mg twice daily was similarly effective in Asian and non-Asian patients in the ALEX study in terms of progression-free survival, CNS progression, and response rate. The rates of toxicities were also comparable. The findings suggest that 600 mg should be the standard dose of alectinib across Asia."
Commenting on the research, Dr Pilar Garrido, Head of the Thoracic Tumour Section, Medical Oncology Department, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain, said: "ALK rearrangements emerged as important therapeutic targets in NSCLC in 2007, defining a distinct molecular subset of tumours. Around 5% of NSCLC patients harbour ALK mutations and are highly sensitive to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which efficiently induce apoptosis. Patients wih advanced ALK positive NSCLC have a high lifetime risk of CNS metastases and a high frequency of brain metastases at diagnosis, with the CNS being the most common site of disease progression."

Saturday, September 12, 2020

Combined drug treatment for lung cancer and secondary tumors



In continuation of my update on alectiniberlotinib and  osimertinib

Alectinib structure.svg 
                                                                   alectinib

                                                   Erlotinib Structural Formulae.png 
                                                                     erlotinib
                                                  Osimertinib.svg
                                                                             Osimertinib


Researchers at Kanazawa University report in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology a promising novel approach for a combined treatment of the most common type of lung cancer and associated secondary cancers in the central nervous system. The approach lies in combining two cancer drugs, with one compensating for a resistance side effect of the other.

In 20 to 40% of patients with cancer, metastasis (the development of secondary tumors) in the central nervous system (CNS) occurs. CNS metastasis impacts negatively on a patient's quality of life, and is associated with a poor health prognosis. In a form of cancer known as ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), CNS metastasis is known to persist when drugs targeting primary tumors are used. Now, Seiji Yano from Kanazawa University and colleagues have investigated the origins for the resistence to such drugs, and tested a new therapeutic strategy on a mouse model.

The researchers looked at the drug alectinib. Although used in standard treatments for advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC, approximately 20 to 30% of patients treated with alectinib develop CNS metastasis, which is attributed to acquired resistance to the drug.
By treating mice first injected with tumor cells with alectinib daily for 16 weeks, the scientists obtained a mouse model displaying alectinib resistance. By biochemical analyses of the mouse brains, Yano and colleagues were able to link the resistance to the activation of a protein known as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This activation is, in turn, a result of an increase in production of amphiregulin (AREG), a protein that binds to EGFR and in doing so 'activates' it.
Based on this insight, the researchers tested the effect of administering drugs used for inhibiting the action of EGFR in combination with alectinib treatment. The experiments showed that a combination treatment of alctinib with either erlotinib or osimertinib—two existing EGFR-inibiting drugs—prevented the progression of CNS metastasis, controlling the condition for over 30 days.
The scientists conclude that the combined use of alectinib and EGFR-inhibitors could overcome alectinib resistance in the mouse model of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC), a particular type of CNS metastasis. Quoting Yano and colleagues: "Our findings may provide rationale for clinical trials to investigate the effects of novel therapies dual-targeting ALK and EGFR in ALK-rearranged NSCLC with alectinib-resistant LMC."
Non-small-cell lung cancer
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) are the two types of lung cancer. 85% of all lung cancers are of the NSCLC type. NSCLCs are less sensitive to chemotherapy than SCLCs, making drug treatment of the highest importance.
Alectinib is a drug used for treating NSCLC, with good efficiency. However, 20-30% of patients taking the  develop secondary cancer in the central nervous system (CNS), which is associated with an acquired resistance to alectinib. Seiji Yano from Kanazawa University and colleagues have now made progress towards a novel therapy against this resistance: a combination of alectinib with other drugs.
Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors
The drugs that Yano and colleagues tested in combination with alectinib on a mouse model were of a type known as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, including osimertinib and erlotinib. Both are being used as medication for treating NSCLC. The former was approved in 2017 as cancer treatment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission. Yano and colleagues obtained results showing that EGFR inhibitors counteract resistance to alectinib and have therefore potential in novel therapies for NSCLC and secondary cancers in the CNS.
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-osimertinib-progression-free-survival-asian-egfr-mutated.html

Thursday, March 3, 2016

IASLC lauds FDA approval of alectinib for lung cancer treatment

Image result for alectinib

The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) is once again gratified to see the approval of a new second-generation lung cancer treatment that can help many patients in their battle against the disease. Lung cancer patients got another round of hope with the FDA's rapid progression of lung cancer drug approvals - this time for alectinib (Alecensa, Roche/Genenetech) for patients with advanced (metastatic) ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) if their disease deteriorated after treatment with another therapy called crizotinib (Xalkori, Pfizer). Patients who could not tolerate treatment with crizotinib also qualify for use of alectinib.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths around the world, responsible for claiming more lives than prostate, colon and breast cancer combined. Medications that target the individual characteristics of a patient's disease continue to create new options and hope for those with lung cancer. For example, tumor cells in about 5 percent of lung cancer patients with NSCLC contain the ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) genetic mutation. In patients with metastatic cancer, the disease spreads to new part of the body. For ALK-positive NSCLC metastatic patients, the disease often spreads to the brain.

Many ALK-positive patients benefit from treatments called ALK inhibitors, such as crizotinib which blocks the activity of the ALK protein and can prevent NSCLC cells from growing and spreading. Alectinib is an oral medication that performs similarly. Patients can also develop resistance to ALK inhibitors such as crizotinib, so alectinib gives health professionals a new option to continue to extend their patients' life span. The FDA previously approved ceritinib (Novartis) in the same treatment setting.

"These types of medications that take advantage of a patient's specific genetic mutations are the future of lung cancer treatments and these treatments create a blueprint of how we can turn some cancers into a chronic disease and eventually create a cure," said Fred R. Hirsch, MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine and Pathology at the University of Colorado Cancer Center and School of Medicine and CEO of the IASLC.

Alectinib is the fifth lung cancer treatment approved by the FDA since early October. The others include:

Necitumumab in combination with standard chemotherapy to treat patients with advanced squamous NSCLC who did not previously received systemic therapy;

Two immunotherapy treatments: nivolumab and pembrolizumab;
And osimertinib, a 3rd-generation EGFR TKI.

Tuesday, February 9, 2016

Alecensa (alectinib) approved for treatment of people with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Alecensa (alectinib) to treat people with advanced (metastatic) ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has worsened after, or who could not tolerate treatment with, another therapy called Xalkori (crizotinib).


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with an estimated 221,200 new diagnoses and 158,040 deaths in 2015, according to the National Cancer Institute. An ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) gene mutation can occur in several different types of cancer cells, including lung cancer cells. ALK gene mutations are present in about 5 percent of patients with NSCLC. In metastatic cancer, the disease spreads to new parts of the body. In ALK-positive NSCLC metastatic patients, the brain is a common place for the disease to spread.
Crizotinib.svg Crizotinib

"Today's approval provides a new therapy for a group of patients who would have few treatment options once their disease no longer responds to treatment with Xalkori," said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "In addition to the primary effect on tumors in the lung, Alecensa clinical trials provide evidence of an effect on tumors that had spread to the brain, which is an important effect for clinicians to understand."

Alecensa is an oral medication that blocks the activity of the ALK protein, which may prevent NSCLC cells from growing and spreading.

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

FDA Approves Alecensa (alectinib) for ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-51DBeedqVKM/VTszutHFfaI/AAAAAAAACAs/rLEEP2BGrBI/s1600/

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Alecensa (alectinib) to treat people with advanced (metastatic) ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has worsened after, or who could not tolerate treatment with, another therapy called Xalkori (crizotinib).
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with an estimated 221,200 new diagnoses and 158,040 deaths in 2015, according to the National Cancer Institute. An ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) gene mutation can occur in several different types of cancer cells, including lung cancer cells. ALK gene mutations are present in about 5 percent of patients with NSCLC. In metastatic cancer, the disease spreads to new parts of the body. In ALK-positive NSCLC metastatic patients, the brain is a common place for the disease to spread.

“Today’s approval provides a new therapy for a group of patients who would have few treatment options once their disease no longer responds to treatment with Xalkori,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “In addition to the primary effect on tumors in the lung, Alecensa clinical trials provide evidence of an effect on tumors that had spread to the brain, which is an important effect for clinicians to understand.”

Alecensa is an oral medication that blocks the activity of the ALK protein, which may prevent NSCLC cells from growing and spreading.

The safety and efficacy of Alecensa were studied in two single-arm clinical trials of patients with metastatic ALK-positive


FDA Approves Alecensa (alectinib) for ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Monday, December 4, 2017

FDA Approves Alecensa (alectinib) as First-Line Treatment for ALK-Positive Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Genentech, a member of the Roche Group  announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for Alecensa (alectinib) for the treatment of people with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as detected by an FDA-approved test. The approval is based on results from the Phase III ALEX study, which showed Alecensa significantly reduced the risk of disease worsening or death (progression-free survival, PFS) by 47 percent (HR=0.53, 95 percent CI: 0.38, 0.73, p<0.0001) compared to crizotinib as assessed by independent review committee (IRC). Median PFS was 25.7 months (95 percent CI: 19.9, not estimable) for people who received Alecensa compared with 10.4 months (95 percent CI: 7.7, 14.6) for people who received crizotinib. The safety profile of Alecensa was consistent with that observed in previous studies.
The study also showed that Alecensa significantly reduced the risk of the cancer spreading to or growing in the brain or central nervous system (CNS) compared to crizotinib by 84 percent (HR=0.16, 95 percent CI: 0.10, 0.28, p<0.0001). This was based on a time to CNS progression analysis in which there was a lower risk of progression in the CNS as the first site of disease progression for people who received Alecensa (12 percent) compared to people who received crizotinib (45 percent).
“Our goal is to develop medicines that have the potential to significantly improve upon the standard of care,” said Sandra Horning, M.D., chief medical officer and head of Global Product Development. “In our pivotal study, Alecensa significantly extended the time that people lived without their disease worsening compared to crizotinib and also showed a marked reduction in the risk of their cancer spreading to the brain.”
“ALK-positive lung cancer is often found in younger people, who tend to have more advanced disease at the time of diagnosis, and comes with a unique set of challenges," said Bonnie J. Addario, a lung cancer survivor and founder of the Bonnie J. Addario Lung Cancer Foundation (ALCF). “We applaud advancements in care, like the approval of Alecensa, which provides a new initial treatment option for people with this type of lung cancer.”
Alecensa received Breakthrough Therapy Designation from the FDA in September 2016 for the treatment of adults with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC who have not received prior treatment with an ALK inhibitor. Breakthrough Therapy Designation is designed to expedite the development and review of medicines intended to treat serious or life-threatening diseases and to help ensure people have access to them through FDA approval as soon as possible. Results from the Phase III ALEX study were simultaneously presented at the 2017 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting and published in The New England Journal of Medicine. Subsequently, Alecensa was recommended in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines as a treatment option for first-line ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC (Category 1, Preferred).
In addition to today’s approval, the FDA also converted Alecensa’s initial accelerated approval in December 2015 for the treatment of people with ALK-positive, metastatic NSCLC who have progressed on or are intolerant to crizotinib (second-line) to a full approval.

Saturday, January 9, 2021

Early treatment with lorlatinib improves survival in some lung cancer patients: Lung cancer patients with a specific genetic alteration lived longer and were protected against metastasis to the brain when treated early with lorlatinib

In continuation of my update on Lorlatinib







Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 87% of all cases of lung cancer. Some 5% of NSCLC cases are ALK-positive, which means they have a genetic abnormality in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene. ALK-positive NSCLC, which is not associated with smoking, is a particularly aggressive form of lung cancer.

"When ALK is turned on abnormally, it's like stepping on the gas pedal -- it drives uncontrolled proliferation and survival of cancer cells," says investigator Alice Shaw, MD, PhD, who was formerly director of the Center for Thoracic Cancers at MGH and led the NEJM study. Notably, ALK-positive patients tend to be 10 to 15 years younger than other lung cancer patients. They are also at high risk for developing brain metastasis.

A new class of drugs that block ALK, known as ALK inhibitors, was discovered in 2008. "Turning off ALK with an ALK inhibitor is like putting on the brakes," agrees Justin Gainor, MD, of the Mass General Cancer Center, who worked with Shaw on the study. "It can lead to rapid killing of cancer cells and cause tumors to shrink dramatically." Both first and second generation ALK inhibitors have been developed, including crizotinib (Xalkori), alectinib (Alecensa), and brigatinib (Alunbrig), which can be very effective, but patients eventually relapse. What's more, patients treated with these drugs can still develop metastatic spread of cancer to the brain.

Lorlatinib belongs to a third-generation of this drug class and is even more effective at blocking ALK. It's currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating ALK-positive patients whose cancer has progressed despite taking older-generation ALK inhibitors.

Shaw and her co-investigators wanted to know if lorlatinib improved the likelihood of long-term remission in ALK-positive patients when administered as first-line therapy. To find out, she and colleagues at 104 medical centers in 23 countries recruited 296 patients with advanced, previously untreated ALK-positive NSCLC. Half of the patients received lorlatinib, while the remainder were treated with crizotinib, which was the standard of care for these patients when the trial began.

The results were striking. Compared to patients who received crizotinib, those given lorlatinib had a 72% reduction in the risk of cancer progression or death. Importantly, lorlatinib also reduced the risk of new or recurrent brain metastases by 93%. Serious side effects were more common in the lorlatinib group, but more than half were increases in blood cholesterol and triglycerides, which were manageable with medication.

The investigators will continue to follow patients in this study to track their long-term outcomes, but "these results support lorlatinib as a potential first-line option for ALK-positive patients," says Shaw.

Shaw is now global head of Translational Clinical Oncology at the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorlatinib