Showing posts sorted by relevance for query Pemetrexed. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query Pemetrexed. Sort by date Show all posts

Thursday, February 16, 2017

Novel combination therapy shows strong response in phase 1 trial

In continuation of my update on Sorafenib, Premetrexed,  Vandetanib
"Though phase 1 studies are designed to evaluate the safety of a new therapy, we had strong preclinical evidence suggesting this novel drug combination could work against a variety of cancers, so we hoped that we would see a response in our patients in this early phase trial," said Andrew Poklepovic, M.D., lead investigator on the study. "With this trial, we established a safe dosing schedule, and we will now be testing the efficacy of the therapy in the phase 2 study."
The results of the clinical trial were recently published online by the journal Oncotarget (PMID: 27213589). The study enrolled 37 patients between October 2011 and December 2014. Of those patients, 36 received treatment and 33 were evaluated for response. One patient had a complete response, meaning all detectable traces of the tumor disappeared, while four patients had a partial response, which means that the tumor volume shrank by at least 30 percent. The therapy stabilized disease progression in an additional 15 patients, with some of these patients responding for up to a year. The therapy was found to be particularly active in breast cancer patients.
"Some dose-limiting toxicities associated with pemetrexed were observed in one cohort of patients, but those who were eligible were switched to the dosing schedule of the second cohort, which was found to safe and tolerable," says Poklepovic, medical oncologist and member of the Developmental Therapeutics research program at Massey as well as assistant professor in the Division of Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care at the VCU School of Medicine.
The trial is based on pre-clinical research conducted by a team of Massey scientists led by Paul Dent, Ph.D., who is the Universal Corporation Chair in Cancer Cell Signaling and a member of the Cancer Cell Signaling research program at Massey, and Richard Moran, Ph.D., who recently retired after 22 years at Massey and more than four decades in the field. Pemetrexed was co-developed by Moran, and is now a first-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mesothelioma. Sorafenib is used to treat liver, kidney and thyroid cancer. In 2011, a research team led by Dent and including Moran discovered that the two drugs synergize to induce profound killing of cancer cells through a toxic form of autophagy, a process that normally re-cycles components of cells to provide energy for maintaining cell growth and survival. The drug combination hyper-activated the autophagy process within cancer cells, causing them to literally eat themselves to death (PMID: 21622715).


The phase 2 study is not the only continuation of the research. Because the initial results of the phase 1 study were so promising, Dent started a new project to discover the best "third drug" that could act to further enhance the anti-cancer properties of the pemetrexed and sorafenib combination. This work has also recently been published in Oncotarget, and it showed that the combination therapy could be enhanced by a class of drugs known as ERBB1/2/4 inhibitors (PMID: 27015562).
"We discovered in mouse models of breast cancer that the drugs lapatinib and vandetanib significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of the pemetrexed and sorafenib therapy without any apparent toxicity to normal tissue. We made a nearly identical observation when adding the drug afatinib in experiments involving non-small cell lung cancer," says Dent. "Based on this data, we will be submitting a grant application to the National Cancer Institute for funding that will hopefully provide data that could allow us to open a future phase 1 trial testing the addition of an ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor to pemetrexed and sorafenib in patients with advanced solid tumors."
Dent was able to determine that ERBB1/2/4 inhibitors could increase the effectiveness of the combination therapy by using a novel technology called a multiplex assay. The multiplex assay is a broad, unbiased screening approach that allows researchers to simultaneously examine the levels of multiple hormones in the blood and determine the activities of enzymes in cancer cells. Using this technology, the researchers discovered that the enzyme ERBB1 was activated in response to the pemetrexed and sorafenib therapy.
"Unlike alternative methods where a certain degree of guesswork is required, the multiplex assay allowed us to observe exactly how the cancer cells responded to therapy," says Dent. "We were surprised to see that the enzyme ERBB1 was activated because it is ordinarily thought to protect cancer cells from chemotherapy. We went on to successfully use ERBB1/2/4 inhibitors as our third drug because of this unexpected data."
The multiplex assay provided Dent's team with such invaluable additional information about how the sorafenib and pemetrexed combination worked in the mouse models that they will now be using the assay in several of their clinical trials moving forward, including the new phase 2 trial of pemetrexed and sorafenib.
"The multiplex assay will allow us to track specific levels of hormones in the blood as patients undergo treatment, which could potentially give us a molecular 'fingerprint' of the point at which tumors develop resistance to the therapy," says Dent. "Ongoing preclinical experiments show that it could be possible to pinpoint exactly how the cancer cells are developing resistance to therapies, which might eventually allow oncologists to develop in real time a personalized therapy designed to overcome drug resistance in an individual patient's tumor."
Ref : http://www.impactjournals.com/oncotarget/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path%5b%5d=9434

Wednesday, January 6, 2016

Lilly, Merck expand oncology clinical trial collaboration


Pemetrexed.svg


Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) and Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced the extension of an existing collaboration to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of Lilly's ALIMTA® (pemetrexed for injection) and Merck's KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab) in a pivotal Phase III study in first-line nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study will be sponsored by Merck and will be open to patients with NSCLC in the first-line setting, regardless of PD-L1 status. Financial details of the collaboration were not disclosed.

The expansion of this oncology clinical trial collaboration comes following the release of encouraging data from a Phase I study, presented earlier this year at the 16th World Congress on Lung Cancer, which evaluated pemetrexed, carboplatin and pembrolizumab in first-line nonsquamous NSCLC.

Pemetrexed is a leading therapeutic option used in combination with platinum-based therapies in this setting, making it an ideal candidate for combination studies with immunotherapy treatments. Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that works by increasing the ability of the body's immune system to help detect and fight tumor cells. Pembrolizumab blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby activating T lymphocytes, which may affect both tumor cells and healthy cells – and is currently approved as a single-agent therapy for certain types of NSCLC.

Tuesday, August 18, 2015

Combination therapy provides promising results in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

An early phase study testing an anti-PDL1 agent in combination with standard chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer has provided promising early results, prompting multiple phase III studies in lung cancer. The findings are being presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO).

In this phase 1b study, patients with untreated non-small cell lung cancer received one of three standard platinum-based chemotherapy regimens (paclitaxel/carboplatin, pemetrexed/carboplatin or nab-paclitaxel/carboplatin) with MPDL3280A, an antibody targeting PD-L1. Early results from the 

Taxol.svgPaclitaxel Carboplatin-skeletal.svgCarboplatin Pemetrexed.svgPemetrexed

first 37 patients showed impressive response rates between 60-75 percent, comparing favorably to historical outcomes with chemotherapy alone, where historical response rates from randomized trials are around 30 - 35 percent. In addition, two complete responses already have been documented, with no evidence of lung cancer on CT scans.

"A complete response is not typically seen in patients with stage IV lung cancer," says the abstract's lead author, Stephen V. Liu, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center. "And the response rates seen with MPDL3280A and chemotherapy were higher than one would expect with chemotherapy alone."

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Adult cancer drugs show promise against an aggressive childhood brain tumor

Researchers relied on mice with group 3 medulloblastoma grown from patient tumors. The mice were developed in Roussel’s laboratory and are a powerful tool for testing the effectiveness of drugs against human tumors. Researchers used the mice to show that pemetrexed and gemcitabine worked against human group 3 tumors and that the drugs could be used in combination with existing chemotherapy agents to boost treatment effectiveness without undue risk. Cisplatin and cyclophosphamide were the other drugs used in this study.
“The finding provides a strong rationale for combination therapy with pemetrexed and gemcitabine for treatment of group 3 medulloblastoma,” Roussel said. Researchers found no evidence that mouse tumor cells develop resistance to the drugs.

Pemetrexed works by disrupting the ability of cancer cells to proliferate. Gemcitabine kills cells by triggering their suicide pathway. Researchers also found evidence the drugs work specifically against group 3 medulloblastoma. The drugs did not extend survival of mice with a different medulloblastoma subtype.
The study builds on previous St. Jude research that has helped to revolutionize understanding of the origins of medulloblastoma and laid the foundation for a new era of risk-based therapy. The goal is to maximize the likelihood of a cure and minimize long-term side effects. The approach combines clinical factors and the molecular markers associated with the different medulloblastoma subtypes to guide how radiation and chemotherapy are combined with surgery.

Friday, July 29, 2016

Added benefit of crizotinib drug for first-line treatment of advanced bronchial carcinoma not proven


Crizotinib.svg

In continuation of my update on crizotinib

The drug crizotinib (trade name: Xalkori) has been available since 2012 for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (bronchial carcinoma) who have a high activity of the enzyme anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and have already received another treatment. In November 2015, the approval was extended to first-line treatment.

After its assessment in 2013, the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) therefore now reassessed the added benefit of the drug in comparison with the appropriate comparator therapy - and found out: An added benefit of crizotinib for the first-line treatment of advanced bronchial carcinoma is not proven.

Carboplatin only in advanced risk of cisplatin side effects

Advanced bronchial carcinoma can only be treated palliatively. The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) specified several appropriate comparator therapies for this. Either cisplatin in combination with a third-generation cytostatic agent was to be used in the control arm, or - in case of an increased risk of cisplatin side effects - carboplatin with a third-generation cytostatic agent. Monotherapy with gemcitabine or vinorelbine was an alternative option for patients with already severe limitations.

Use of carboplatin attached to condition

The drug manufacturer did not use the latter option and only submitted data from a randomized study in which crizotinib was directly compared with cisplatin or carboplatin, each in combination with the cytostatic agent pemetrexed. Carboplatin is not approved for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer, but can be prescribed in so-called off-label use. This is only the case for patients with an advanced risk of cisplatin side effects, e.g. in neuropathy, hearing impairment or susceptibility to nausea, renal insufficiency or cardiac failure.

The only submitted study did not fulfil the condition

Almost half of the participants received carboplatin in the control arm of the PROFILE 1014 study; the criteria for this individual medical decision were not comprehensible. A large proportion of the patients in the control arm did not correspond to the criteria of the Pharmaceutical Directive for the off-label use of carboplatin. Patients with neuropathy, renal insufficiency or cardiac failure were excluded from participation in the study and only about two and six per cent of the participants had notable hearing impairment or nausea as accompanying disease.

Hence the control group of the study did not adequately represent the appropriate comparator therapy. The data submitted were therefore unsuitable for the derivation of an added benefit of crizotinib in comparison with this comparator therapy.


Added benefit of crizotinib drug for first-line treatment of advanced bronchial carcinoma not proven: The drug crizotinib (trade name: Xalkori) has been available since 2012 for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (bronchial carcinoma) who have a high activity of the enzyme anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and have already received another treatment. In November 2015, the approval was extended to first-line treatment.