Showing posts with label risk. Show all posts
Showing posts with label risk. Show all posts

Thursday, November 8, 2018

Low carbohydrate diet can increase risk of premature death, finds study

Low carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided, according to a large study presented today at ESC Congress 2018.
Study author Professor Maciej Banach, of the Medical University of Lodz, Poland, said: "We found that people who consumed a low carbohydrate diet were at greater risk of premature death. Risks were also increased for individual causes of death including coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. These diets should be avoided."
Obesity is a major health issue worldwide and raises the risk of several chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Different diets have been suggested for weight loss, such as diets low in carbohydrates and high in protein and fat. The long-term safety of these diets is controversial, with previous studies reporting conflicting results of their influence on the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death.
This study prospectively examined the relationship between low carbohydrate diets, all-cause death, and deaths from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease (including stroke), and cancer in a nationally representative sample of 24,825 participants of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 1999 to 2010. Compared to participants with the highest carbohydrate consumption, those with the lowest intake had a 32% higher risk of all-cause death over an average 6.4-year follow-up. In addition, risks of death from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer were increased by 51%, 50%, and 35%, respectively.
The results were confirmed in a meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies with 447,506 participants and an average follow-up 15.6 years, which found 15%, 13%, and 8% increased risks in total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality with low (compared to high) carbohydrate diets (see figure for total mortality).
Professor Banach said: "Low carbohydrate diets might be useful in the short term to lose weight, lower blood pressure, and improve blood glucose control, but our study suggests that in the long-term they are linked with an increased risk of death from any cause, and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer."
Participants in the NHANES study had an average age of 47.6 years, and 51% were women. They were divided into quartiles based on the usual percentage of carbohydrates in their diet. The risks of all-cause and cause-specific death over an average 6.4-year follow-up rose with each fall in carbohydrate intake (see table), and remained significant after adjusting for all available factors that might have influenced the association (model 2 in the table).
The researchers also examined the link between all-cause death and low carbohydrate diets for obese (body mass index [BMI] 30 kg/m2 or greater) and non-obese (BMI under 30 kg/m2) participants in two age groups (55 years and older versus under 55) and found that the link was strongest in the non-obese older participants.

Low carbohydrate diet can increase risk of premature death, finds study

Tuesday, October 30, 2018

Very high levels of good cholesterol may increase risk of heart attack and death

In continuation of my update on Cholesterol
Very high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol may be associated with an increased risk of heart attack and death, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2018.
Study author Dr Marc Allard-Ratick, of Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, US, said: "It may be time to change the way we view HDL cholesterol. Traditionally, physicians have told their patients that the higher your 'good' cholesterol, the better. However, the results from this study and others suggest that this may no longer be the case."
HDL cholesterol has been considered "good" because the HDL molecule is involved in the transport of cholesterol from the blood and blood vessel walls to the liver and ultimately out of the body, thereby reducing the risk of clogged arteries and atherosclerosis. People with low HDL cholesterol have a greater risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. But the protective effect of very high HDL cholesterol has been unclear.
This study, conducted as part of the Emory Cardiovascular Biobank, investigated the relationship between HDL cholesterol levels and the risk of heart attack and death in 5,965 individuals, most of whom had heart disease. The average age of participants was 63 years and 35% were female.
Participants were divided into five groups according to their HDL cholesterol level: less than 30 mg/dl (0.78 mmol/L), 31-40 mg/dl (0.8-1 mmol/L); 41-50 mg/dl (1.1-1.3 mmol/L); 51-60 mg/dl (1.3-1.5 mmol/L); and greater than 60 mg/dl (1.5 mmol/L).
During a median follow-up of four years, 769 (13%) participants had a heart attack or died from a cardiovascular cause. Participants with HDL cholesterol 41-60 mg/dl (1.1-1.5 mmol/L) had the lowest risk of heart attack or cardiovascular death. Risk was increased both in participants with low levels (less than 41 mg/dl) and very high levels (greater than 60 mg/dl) of HDL cholesterol, which produced a U-shaped curve when plotted graphically.
Participants with HDL cholesterol levels greater than 60 mg/dl (1.5 mmol/L) had a nearly 50% increased risk of dying from a cardiovascular cause or having a heart attack compared to those with HDL cholesterol levels 41-60 mg/dl (1.1-1.5 mmol/L).
The associations were consistent even after controlling for other risk factors for heart disease such as diabetes, smoking, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol, as well as other factors linked with high HDL cholesterol such as alcohol intake, race, and sex.
The results support findings from several large population-based studies, including a recent publication which found increased cardiovascular and all-cause death when HDL cholesterol reached extremely high levels. Dr Allard-Ratick said: "Our results are important because they contribute to a steadily growing body of evidence that very high HDL cholesterol levels may not be protective, and because unlike much of the other data available at this time, this study was conducted primarily in patients with established heart disease."
He noted that more research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of this paradoxical association. "While the answer remains unknown, one possible explanation is that extremely elevated HDL cholesterol may represent 'dysfunctional HDL' which may promote rather than protect against cardiovascular disease," he said.
Dr Allard-Ratick concluded: "One thing is certain: the mantra of HDL cholesterol as the 'good' cholesterol may no longer be the case for everyone."

Ref :

Monday, December 25, 2017

Benzodiazepines linked to increased risk of death among Alzheimer’s disease patients

Chemical structure diagram of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring. Another benzene ring is attached to the bottom of the diazepine ring via a single line. Attached to the first benzene ring is a side chain labeled R7; to the second, a side chain labeled R2'; and attached to the diazepine ring, two side chains labeled R1 and R2.

Benzodiazepine and related drug use is associated with a 40 per cent increase in mortality among persons with Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. The findings were published in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.
The study found that the risk of death was increased right from the initiation of benzodiazepine and related drug use. The increased risk of death may result from the adverse events of these drugs, including fall-related injuries, such as hip fractures, as well as pneumonia and stroke.
The study was based on the register-based MEDALZ (Medication Use and Alzheimer's Disease) cohort, which includes all persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in Finland during 2005-2011. Persons who had used benzodiazepines and related drugs previously were excluded from this study, and therefore, the study population consisted of 10,380 new users of these drugs. They were compared with 20,760 persons who did not use these drugs.
Although several treatment guidelines state that non-pharmacological options are the first-line treatment of anxiety, agitation and insomnia in persons with dementia, benzodiazepines and related drugs are frequently used in the treatment of these symptoms. If benzodiazepine and related drug use is necessary, these drugs are recommended for short-term use only. These new results encourage more consideration for benzodiazepine and related drug use in persons with dementia.
Ref :