Showing posts with label Rett syndrome. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Rett syndrome. Show all posts

Monday, September 12, 2022

Acadia Pharmaceuticals Announces Trofinetide New Drug Application for the Treatment of Rett Syndrome has been Accepted for Filing and Review by U.S. FDA

About Rett Syndrome

Rett syndrome is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs primarily in females following a near normal development in the first two years of life.  It is caused by mutations on the X chromosome on a gene called MECP2.  Occurring worldwide in approximately one of every 10,000 to 15,000 female births and in the United States impacts 6,000 to 9,000 patients.  Children with Rett syndrome experience a period of developmental regression between 18-30 months of age, which is typically followed by a plateau period lasting years to decades. Rett syndrome is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation, typically by about three years of age

A complex and multisystem disorder, Rett syndrome causes profound impairment to central nervous system (CNS) function, including loss of communication skills, purposeful hand use, gait abnormalities, and stereotypic hand movements such as hand wringing/squeezing, clapping/tapping, mouthing and washing/rubbing automatisms.   People living with Rett syndrome may also experience a range of additional symptoms, such as gastrointestinal complications, skeletal abnormalities, neuroendocrine abnormalities, disruptive and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as mood dysregulation and sleep disturbances. Currently, there are no FDA-approved medicines for the treatment of Rett syndrome.


About Trofinetide
Trofinetide is an investigational drug. It is a novel synthetic analog of the amino‐terminal tripeptide of IGF-1 designed to treat the core symptoms of Rett syndrome by potentially reducing neuroinflammation and supporting synaptic function. Trofinetide is thought to stimulate synaptic maturation and overcome the synaptic and neuronal immaturities that are characteristic of Rett syndrome pathophysiology. In the central nervous system, IGF-1 is produced by both of the major types of brain cells – neurons and glia. IGF-1 in the brain is critical for both normal development and for response to injury and disease. Trofinetide has been shown to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines, inhibit the overactivation of microglia and astrocytes, and increase the amount of available IGF-1 that can bind to IGF-1 receptors.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trofinetide

Acadia Pharmaceuticals Inc.  announced   the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)  acceptance  for filing its New Drug Application (NDA) of trofinetide for the treatment of Rett syndrome. The FDA has granted a priority review and assigned a PDUFA (Prescription Drug User Fee Act) action date of March 12, 2023. The FDA has also informed the company that at this time they are not planning to hold an Advisory Committee meeting.

“We’re pleased that the FDA has accepted our NDA filing and we will be working closely with them to facilitate completion of the review in a timely manner,” said Steve Davis, Acadia’s Chief Executive Officer. “If approved, trofinetide will be the first drug available for the treatment of Rett syndrome, a rare and devastating condition for patients and their families. This milestone reinforces Acadia’s ongoing commitment to advancing research into high unmet needs in disorders affecting the central nervous system.”

Rett syndrome is a complex, multisystem neurodevelopmental disorder that includes a period of normal development followed by significant developmental regression with loss of language and hand function skills, impaired gait and development of hand stereotypes.1,2 It occurs worldwide in approximately one of every 10,000 to 15,000 female births.3

“Rett is a complex disease that can present with a diverse array of symptoms. In clinical trials, trofinetide demonstrated a significant improvement in a range of Rett syndrome symptoms,” said Jeffrey L. Neul, M.D., Ph.D., Annette Schaffer Eskind Chair and Director, Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Pharmacology, and Special Education, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Phase 3 Lavender™ study investigator. “We look forward to the FDA’s review of this submission and the prospect of having access to the first approved treatment for Rett syndrome.”

The NDA is supported by results from the pivotal Phase 3 Lavender study evaluating the efficacy and safety of trofinetide versus placebo in 187 girls and young women aged 5-20 years with Rett syndrome. The study demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over placebo on the co-primary endpoints, the Rett Syndrome Behaviour Questionnaire (RSBQ) total score change from baseline to 12 weeks (p=0.0175; effect size=0.37) and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale score (p=0.0030; effect size=0.47). The RSBQ is a caregiver assessment of the core symptoms of Rett syndrome, and the CGI-I is a global physician assessment of worsening or improving of Rett syndrome. In addition, the study also met its key secondary endpoint, the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile™ Infant-Toddler Checklist–Social Composite Score (CSBS-DP-IT–Social) change from baseline to week 12 (p=0.0064; effect size=0.43), a caregiver assessment of ability to communicate.

In 2018, Acadia entered into an exclusive license agreement with Neuren Pharmaceuticals Limited (ASX: NEU) for the development and commercialization of trofinetide for the treatment of Rett syndrome and other indications in North America. In addition to receiving priority review by the FDA, trofinetide has been granted Fast Track Status and Orphan Drug Designation for the treatment of Rett syndrome in the U.S. and has been granted Rare Pediatric Disease (RPD) designation by the FDA. Upon FDA approval of a product with RPD designation, the sponsor can receive a Priority Review Voucher, which can be used to obtain priority review for a subsequent application.


Wednesday, October 29, 2014

Synthetic oil triheptanoin improves Rett syndrome, longevity

We know that, Triheptanoin is a triglyceride that is composed of three seven-carbon fatty acids. These odd-carbon fatty acids are able to provide anaplerotic substrates for the TCA cycle. Triheptanoin is used clinically in humans to treat inherited metabolic diseases, such aspyruvate carboxylase deficiency and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. It also appears to increase the efficacy of the ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy.
Triheptanoin.png

Now the research team used mice lacking the MeCP2 protein, which left them with severe Rett syndrome. In examining those mice, what stood out, according to Gabriele Ronnett, M.D., Ph.D., who led the research project at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, was that they weighed the same as healthy mice but had large fat deposits accompanied by lower amounts of nonfat tissue, such as muscle. This suggested that calories were not being used to support normal tissue function but instead were being stored as fat.

This possibility led Ronnett and her research team to consider the role of mitochondria, which transform the building blocks of nutrients into a high-energy molecule, ATP. This molecule drives processes such as the building of muscle and the growth of nerve cells. Mitochondria use a series of biochemical reactions, collectively called the TCA cycle, to make this transformation possible. According to Susan Aja, Ph.D., a research associate and lead member of the research team, "If the components of the TCA cycle are low, nutrient building blocks are not processed well to create ATP. They are instead stored as fat."